Isonymy Baillie, Susan R. "A surname analysis of two fishing communities in north-east Scotland." Annals of Human Biology , no. 72(1981): 392. Abstract: Lawson1: "Surnames used to measure inbreeding indicate that fishermen had more inbreeding than non-fishermen" Bhatia, K. "The application of gene diversity analyses to surname diversity data." Journal of Theoretical Biology 88, no. 1(1981): 121-33. Bittles, A. H. and M. T. Smith. "Abo and Rh(d) Blood-Group frequencies in the Ards Peninsula, Northeastern Ireland : evidence for the continuing existence of a major politicoreligious boundary." Annals of Human Biology 18, no. 3(1991): 253-58. Abstract: Data are presented on the ABO and Rh(D) frequencies of 1685 individuals living in the Ards Peninsula, northeastern Ireland. Previous investigations based on surname analysis and linguistic studies showed a basic north-south population divide that could be traced back at least to the early seventeenth century. The current survey indicates the continuation of this divide, which is coincident with known patterns of religious persuasion. Boldsen, J. L., C. G. N. Mascie-Taylor, and Gabriel Ward Lasker. "An analysis of the geographical distribution of selected British surnames." Human Biology 58, no. 1(1986): 85-95. Boyce, A J. Migration and mobility: biosocial aspects of human movement. London: Taylor and Francis, 1984. Cabello, P. H. and H. Krieger. "Note on estimates of the inbreeding coefficient through study of pedigrees and isonymous marriages." Human Biology 63, no. 5(1991): 719-23. Abstract: genealogy analyses show that the consanguineous marriages do not necessarily occur regularly. Therefore the isonymy analysis gives a misestimation of the inbreeding coefficient, depending on the prevailing form of nonrandomness Chakraborty, Ranajit and others. "Distribution of last names : a stochastic model for likelihood determination in record linkage." in: Genealogical Demography, Editors Bennett Dyke and Warren T. Morrill, 63-69. New York: Academic Press, 1981. Notes: Abstract in American Journal of Physical Anthropology 1979 No 50 p426-427 Abstract: Lawson1: "Develops a statistical model for the distribution of surnames from records in Laredo, Texas and Guam from 1829-1977. 10 refs." Crow, J. F. and A. P. Mange. "Measurement of inbreeding from the frequency of marriages between persons of the same surname." Social Biology 29, no. 1/2(1982): 101-5. Devor, E. J. "Matrix methods for the analysis of isonymous and nonisonymous surname pairs." Human Biology 55, no. 2(1983): 277-88. Fisher, R. A. and Janet Vaughan. "Surnames and blood groups. " Nature , no. 144(1939): 1047-48. Notes: reprinted in ‘Collected Papers of R.A. Fisher (Adelaide: University of Adelaide,1971-1974) Abstract: Lawson2: "Used Welsh surnames Davis, Edwards, Harris, Jones, Lewis, Morgan, Phillips and Roberts to identify a Welsh sample for the study of blood types in Britain." Fox, W. R. and Gabriel Ward Lasker. "The distribution of surname frequencies." International Statistical Review, no. 51 (1983): 81-87. Harrison, G. A. The human biology of the English village. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. Notes: With a chapter on surnames by Gabriel W. Lasker Hill, Emmeline W., Mark A. Jobling, and Daniel G. Bradley. "Y-Chromosome variation and Irish origins." Nature 404, no. 6776(2000): 351-52. Abstract: A study of the Y-chromosome of 221 Irish males, which found significant differences between those with Gaelic surnames and others, and between those of eastern and western Irish origin. Islam, M. N. "A stochastic model for surname evolution ." Biometrical Journal 37, no. 1(1995): 119-26. Abstract: Surnames are inherited in much the same way as biological traits like alleles of one locus. Assuming the heritability of surnames, a simple stochastic model for X, the total number of occurrences of a surname, the Consul distribution defined by the probability mass function:for x = 1,2,3,… and zero otherwise and where either (i) m is a positive integer when 0 < theta < 1 such that theta less-than-or-equal-to mtheta less-than-or-equal 1, or (ii) m < 0, theta < 0 such that m theta less-than-or-equal-to 1, can be arrived at by considering the branching process mechanism. Someapplications of the model to real data are are also considered. Kaplan, Bernice and Gabriel Ward Lasker. "The present distribution of some English surnames derived from place names." Human Biology 55, no. 2(1983): 243-50. Kosten, M. and R. J. Mitchell. "Examining population-structure through the use of surname matrices : methodology for visualizing nonrandom mating." Human Biology 62, no. 3(1990): 319-35. Kuchemann, C. F., A. J. Boyce, and G. A. Harrison. "A demographic and genetic study of a group of Oxfordshire villages." Human Biology, no. 39 (1967): 251-76. Lange, Kenneth. "Minimum extinction probability for surnames and favorable mutations." Mathematical Biosciences 54, no. 1/2(1981): 71-78. Abstract: Lawson1: "Uses mathematical proofs to develop extinction probability for surnames. Minimum probability is obtained when the variance in the number of offspring is smallest. 17 refs." Lasker, G. W. and C. G Mascie-Taylor. "The genetic structure …sh villages: surname diversity changes between 1976 and 1997 ." Annals of Human Biology 28, no. 5 (September 2001-October 2001): 546-53. Abstract: An examination of the change in the coefficient of relationship by isonymy (Ri) over a 21-year period ; calculated from the surnames of males in the registers of electors for 15 villages near Oxford in 1976 and again in 1997. In conclusion,this study showed that there was a tendency for random isonymy to decline in the 20th century. The reduction in the between-residence component can be accounted for by migration into the villages. Lasker, Gabriel Ward. "Application of surname frequency distributions to studies of mating preferences." In: Human Mating Patterns C. G. N. Mascie-Taylor and A. J. Boyce. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. ________. "Calculating components of the coefficient of relationship ." Annals of Human Biology 25, no. 5(1998): 501-2. Abstract: "The coefficient of relationship by isonymy is Ri = Sigma(n(n – 1)/2(N(N – 1)) in which n is the number of persons of each surname and N = Sigma n. Dividing Ri into two components, one for the contribution ofco-residence (family size) and the other for diversity of surnames among residences is achieved by letting a(1) represent Sigma n(n – 1) for all residents, at represent Sigma n(n – 1) after eliminating all but one individual of any name at any residence, and b(1) represent 2N(N – 1) for all residents. Then the component for inter-residence diversity is a(2)/b(1) and the component for relationship by co-residence (including the interaction) is (a(1) – a(2))/b(1). By the same logic it is possible to calculate separately theinteraction component, but the additional information seems of limited importance" ________. "Census versus sample data in isonymy studies: relationship at short distances." Human Biology 69, no. 5(1997): 733-38. Abstract: "The degree of isonymy is greatly influenced by whether or not it includes the extent of isonymous relationship resulting from persons of the same surname living in the same residence. In a sample of 313 male citizens in one English village and 386 males in another village, isonymy within the same residence averaged 0.86. Total relationship by isonymy was 60% and 48% understated in samples of one individual of any surname at eachresidence in the two villages, such as would result from use of telephone directories as a source. In these villages isonymy between occupants of contiguous houses was also elevated, Only a small fraction of the total isonymy could be attributed to different residences on the same street, so this has little effect on the coefficient of relationship for the whole village or region. The larger the population, the less the bias from ignoring within-household relationships" ________. "The frequencies of surnames in England and Wales." Human Biology 55, no. 2 (1983): 331-40. ________. "Genetic structure of the human population of Britain as revealed in the distribution of surnames." in: Anthropological Studies in Great Britain and Ireland, editors Firestone Melvin M and Cove John J, 147pp. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona State University, 1982. ________. "Isonymy (occurrence of the same surname in affinal relatives): a comparison of rates calculated from pedigrees, grave markers and death and birth registers." Human Biology, no. 41: 309-21. ________. "The occurrence of identical (isonymous) surnames in various relationships in pedigrees: a preliminary analysis of the relationship of surname combinations to inbreeding." American Journal of Human Genetics, no. 20 (1968): 250-257. ________. "Relationships among the Otmoor villages and surrounding communities as inferred from surnames contained in the current register of Electors." Annals of Human Biology, no. 5 (1978): 105-11. Abstract: Lawson1: "Reports on population inter-relationships that can be determined through isonymy. 12 refs." ________. "Repeated surnames in those marrying into British one-surname lineages – an approach to the evaluation of population-structure through analysis of the surnames in marriages." Human Biology 60, no. 1(1988): 1-9. ________. Surnames and genetic Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. Notes: Reviewed in ‘Nomina’ 10 Abstract: Lawson1: "Begins with a comprehensive review of the use of surnames in studying inbreeding from the time of Darwin and describes a number of investigations all over the world using isonymy to measure inbreeding. Of major interest is the appendix which contains maps and diagrams of 100 surnames from England and Wales showing the dispersions of 1975 isonymous marriages. This information throws light on the migration pattern of those name bearers. These surnames comprise 20% of the total population. About 160 refs." Lasker, Gabriel Ward and B. A. Kaplan. "Demography in biological anthropology : human population structure and evolution." American Journal of Human Biology 7, no. 4(1995): 425-30. Abstract: "The fact of human evolution is evident in the biological variation caused by the pattern of lines of descent. Theories of human evolution are the explanations of the fertility and mortality differentials that determine patterns of variation atthe subspecific level. Migrations also influence the patterns. Because human beings plan migrations and marriages, theories relying solely on selective advantage and gene diffusion do not fully account for the observed patterns. These patterns can be interpreted through time and space as dense thickets of descent lines, often clustered into local fascicles held together by inbreeding. The patterns of descent lines are thus punctuated by births, sometimes ended by extinction of lines, but marked also by rich interconnections of the fascicles by filaments that represent marital migration. The patterns are neither solely of racial isolates nor of simple diffusion, but are the result of the complex sociocultural events that influence genetic demography, a field of study that some of Ed Hunt’s work foreshadowed." ________. "Surnames and genetic-structure : repetition of the same pairs of names of married-couples , a measure of the subdivision of the population." Human Biology 57, no. 3 (1985): 431-40. Lasker, Gabriel Ward and C. G. N. Mascie-Taylor. "The geographical distribution of selected surnames in Britain : model gene frequency clines." Journal of Human Evolution 14, no. 4(1985): 385-92. ________. "Surnames in five English villages : relationship to each other, to surrounding areas, and to England and Wales." Journal of Biosocial Science, no. 15 (1983): 25-34. Lasker, Gabriel Ward, C. G. N. Mascie-Taylor, and D. A. Coleman. "Repeating pairs Of surnames in marriages In Reading (England) And Their Significance For Population-Structure." Human Biology 58, no. 3(1986): 421-25. Lasker, Gabriel Ward and P. D. Raspe. "Given name relationships support surname genetics – A note and correction." Journal of Biosocial Science 24, no. 1(1992): 131-33. Abstract: Analysis of a further four samples of first names in the index of marriages registered in England and Wales in the first 3 months of 1975 support the claim that there is no significant difference of ‘between’ versus ‘within’ registration district Lasker, Gabriel Ward and D. F. Roberts. ‘;Secular trends in relationship as estimated by surnames : a study of a Tyneside parish.’ Annals of Human Biology, no. 9 (1982): 299-307. Manni, ‘Geographic patterns of (genetic, morphologic, linguistic) variation: how barriers can be detected using Monmonier’s algorithm’ Human Biology , 76 no. 2 (April 2004):173-190 Manni, F.a b , Toupance, B.a , Sabbagh, A.a , Heyer, E.a ‘New method for surname studies of ancient patrilineal population structures, and possible application to improvement of Y-chromosome sampling’ American Journal of Physical Anthropology 126 (2), February 2005, Pages 214-228 Abstract: "As a case study, the spatial patterns of the 9,929 most common surnames of the Netherlands were analyzed by a clustering method called self-organizing maps (SOMs)”. Results indicate that “n a given location, the descendants of those individuals who inhabited the area at the time of origin of surnames can be as low as ~20%." Manrubia, Susanna and Damian H. Zanette ‘At the boundary between biological and cultural evolution: the origin of surname distributions.’ Journal of Theoretical Biology 216, no. 4(June 2002): 461-77. Abstract: Surnames and non-recombining alleles are inherited from a single parent in a highly similar way. A simple birth-death model with mutations can accurately describe this process. Exponentially growing and constant populations are investigated, and we study how different compositions of the founder populations can be observed in present-day diversity distributions. We analyse different quantities in the statistically stationary state, both through analytic and numerical methods. Our results compare favourably to field data for family sizes in several countries. We discuss the relationship between the dis-tribution of surnames and the genetic diversity of a population. Mascie-Taylor, C. G. N. and Barry Bogin. Human variability and plasticity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Notes: Chapter 8 entitled ‘The use of surnames in the study of human variability and plasticity’ Mascie-Taylor, C. G. N. and Gabriel Ward Lasker. "The distribution of surnames in England and Wales: a model for genetic distribution." Man 25, no. 3 (1990): 521-30. Abstract: "The distribution of 23 surnames in England and Wales are mapped from listings in telephone directories. Six of the names had previously been mapped from a three-month cohort of marriage registry listings, but the much larger samples in the telephone directories permit the display of additional details of the distributions – even of surnames of relatively infrequent occurrence. The maps show the unique features of each distribution. None of the patterns shows an even distribution with equal frequencies throughout England and Wales. In some respects surnames reveal the effects of past migrations so that their geographic patterns model those of numerous alleles of a very polymorphic gene" ________. "Geographic distribution of surnames in Britain: the Smiths and Joneses have cline like blood group genes." Journal of Biosocial Science 16, no. 3(1984): 301-8. ________. "Geographical distribution of common surnames in England and Wales." Annals of Human Biology 12, no. 5(1985): 397-401. Mascie-Taylor, C. G. N., Gabriel Ward Lasker, and A. J. Boyce. "Repetition of the same surnames in different marriages as an indication of the structure of the population of Sanday Island, Orkney Islands." Human Biology 59, no. 1(1987): 97-102. Raspe, Pamela and Gabriel Ward Lasker. "The structure of the human population in the Isles of Scilly : inferences from surnames and birthplaces listed in the Census and Marriage records." Annals of Human Biology , no. 7(1980): 401-10. Abstract: Lawson1: "Surnames were used to study the structure of the population of the Isles of Scilly. Isonymy (people with the same surname) statistics were computed for the period 1726-1975. Coefficients of relationship by marital isonymy show a decrease and a slight tendency to avoid marriage between close relatives. No relationship was found between random isonymy and marital migration. 19 refs.”" Relethford, J. H. "Analysis of marital structure in Massachusetts using repeating pairs of surnames." Human Biology 64, no. 1(1992): 25-33. Abstract: "Analysis of surnames from marriages is now a well-established method in the study of marital and genetic structure. Traditional methods of partitioning inbreeding into random and non-random components rely on the total number of isonymous marriages. Because this number is often low, standard errors of inbreeding estimates tend to be high. Lasker and Kaplan (1985) devised a method that circumvents this problem by focusing on the total number of repeating pairs (RP) of surnames among marriages. The observed value of RP can be compared with the value expected at random (RP(r)) to assess patterns of subdivision within a population. The RP method is applied here to data from 3431 marriages that took place from 1800 to 1849 in 4 Massachusetts towns ________. "Estimation of kinship and genetic-distance from surnames." Human Biology 60, no. 3(1988): 475-92. Roberts, D. F. and M. J. Roberts. "Surnames and relationships : an Orkney Study." Human Biology 55, no. 2 (1983): 341-47. Rogers, A. R. "Doubts about isonomy." Human Biology 63, no. 5(1991): 663-68. Abstract: "The method of isonymy, developed by Crow and Mange for estimating inbreeding from surname frequencies, requires an assumption that has not been appreciated: It is necessary to assume that all males in some ancestral generation, the founding stock, had unique surnames. Because this assumption is seldom justified in real populations, the applicability of the isonymy method is extremely limited. Even worse, the estimates it provides refer to an unspecified founding stock, and this implies that these estimates are devoid of information" Smith, Malcolm. Human biology and history. Taylor & Francis, 2002. Abstract: "This multi-disciplinary volume weaves together the fields of biology, archaeology, anthropology and history to produce a wide-ranging analysis of the biological history of past human populations. Table of contents:- Human biology and history – the scope and scale of interaction; adaptation and the English demographic regime; British polygyny; warfare and population structure; isonymy analysis – the potential for application of quantitative analysis of surname distributions to problems in historical research; calculating nutritional status in the past from historical sources; the achievements of anthropometric history; palaeobiology as a tool for the study of survival of past populations; "Observe – Our Noses Were Made to Carry Spectacles, So We Have Spectacles"; mines, meals and movement – a human ecological approach to the interface of "history and biology" ________. "Isonymy analysis: the potential for application of quantitative analysis of surname distributions to problems in historical research." in: Human Biology and History, editor Malcolm Smith, 112-33 Cambridge University Press, 2002. ________. "Surnames, migration and the pattern of population. "Symposium on Human Biology and History: Society for the Study of Human Biology. Sokal, R. R. and others. "A spatial analysis of 100 surnames in England and Wales." Annals of Human Biology 19, no. 5 (1992): 445-76. Abstract: "Spatial patterns are described and analysed for the 84 most common surnames in England and Wales, as well as 16 others selected for various reasons. At least three-quarters of the surname frequencies show spatial structure and are heterogeneous over the area of study" Stevenson, J. C., R. J. Brown, and M. S. Schanfield. "Surname analysis as a sampling method for recovering genetic information." Human Biology 55, no. 2 (1983): 219-25. Swedlund, A. C. and A. J. Boyce. "Mating structure in historical populations : estimation by analysis of surnames." Human Biology 55, no. 2 (1983): 251-62. Sykes, Bryan and Catherine Irven. "Surnames and the Y chromosome." American Journal of Human Genetics 66, no. 4(April 2000): 1417-19. Abstract: "A randomly ascertained sample of males with the surname "Sykes" was typed with four Y-chromosome microsatellites. Almost half the sample shared the same Y-chromosome haplotype, which has not been observed in control samples either from the same geographic region or from the United Kingdom as a whole. This points to a single surname founder for extant Sykes males, even though written sources had predicted multiple origins. The distribution of other Sykes Y-chromosome haplotypes were not significantly different from those in controls and may be accounted for by the historical accumulation of nonpaternity during the past 700 years, in which case the average rate estimate is 1.3%/generation. If this pattern is reproduced with other surnames, it may have important forensic and genealogical applications." Weiss, Kenneth M. and others. "Mutations in names : implications for assessing identity by means of descent from historical records." Human Biology, no. 55 (1983): 313-22. Weiss, V. "Inbreeding and genetic-distance between hierarchically structured populations measured by surname frequencies." Mankind Quarterly 21, no. 2(1980): 135-49.