Guild of One-Name Studies
One-name studies, Genealogy
This profile page is my effort to try and give a synopsis?, of the name Courtman in the World, and still some way to go. It is clear that Courtman has many variants, and might even be one itself from Courtier, Court, Corte, Curt or A'court. What is clear, is that there are many more names than i originally anticipated, and with all those variants it is a huge task, and one i know i will not see to the end. Still, at least i have put together all that inherited 1980s hand scribble and typing, into a digital form for preservation, presentation, and for another fool to pick up after i have gone, and good luck to who ever you are. All i ask is you give me, and all the others mentioned below due credit.
Courtman is the surname for my late mother, and for her the name was originally concentrated in her County of birth, Essex, England, but the quest to find work in the late 17 and 18th Centuries changed all that for many. There are other lines in London (City, and Greater formed from parts of Middlesex, Essex, Surrey and Kent), Northampton, Devon, Fenland's, (Norfolk, Lincolnshire and Cambridgeshire) North East England (Northumberland, Sunderland, Durham, Tyne & Weir) Greater Manchester and Lancashire. With pockets in other areas of England, and one each in Wales and also the Channel Islands, and originally none at all in Scotland, except John Courtman the Canon, but suspect he probably came from England. Although now i have located a Cortman Family in Aberdeen, and Henry the head, seems to have originated from Germany, so another German link to our greater Family. Most of the lines can now be linked, and one of my main tasks is to link the Essex main Tree with the Greater Manchester & the Fenland's trees, as these last two are now connected back to a common Ancestor in Norfolk, although many smaller trees in the Fenland's have yet to be connected, due mostly to them being Ag Labs and moved around to where the work was, even heading North to Lancashire, Durham and Northumberland, and moving away from seasonal work on the land to Ship yards, Docks, Ships Crew, Coal Mining and the Cotton mills.
There are of course lines in all of the English speaking free Countries of the World, Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and the USA, and all originated from several of the above lines and Counties. But mainly Norfolk, Essex and Lancashire, and these are also being looked into when time permits. In addition, there are lines in both Germany and even Russia with this spelling, and other variants. Probably also the Baltic states, but I haven’t gone there yet and probably never will, and need others to pick up these lines. There are of course all the Commonwealth Countries, as most have English the first or second language, and again i haven’t started researching these yet, but don’t expect to find many...he said. But i simply do not have the time to follow all lines, and have to stick to a regimental approach, concentrating in one area at a time, and in one Country. In addition, i have decided to follow the Courtman name where ever it pops up in the World, and had already made it a one name study for some years, and now finally a member of The Guild of One-Name Studies, aka GOONS as at March 2017. There is a common belief within the Essex Courtman, that all Courtman are related, and within Essex that is about 95% true, if not 100%, and my main goal is to link all Courtman trees throughout the World, but i am realistic! And believe it or not, i do have a life outside of Genealogy, although my dear late Ann thought otherwise.
I have had loads of help along the way with other Courtman researchers, and the main researchers names are given credit at the foot of this document, and on the foot of my main website home page www.fraser-courtman.co.uk. And it was Dudley Courtman, a second Cousin and one of the Gang of Four that sent the 1980s hand written & Typed trees, notes, IGI scribbles and other items through the post one day, and hit the floor with a resounding thud, and a lot of it done on a Typewriter, wonderful! It took many months of sorting, sifting, understanding and then digitising. In order for me to make some sense of it all, even if the Authors knew what it all meant, i had to learn very quickly. I have kept those original documents, and refer to them as the Courtman Family Bible, as to me it saved me many years of research, that would have been duplicated again and more wasted effort.
Other names are many with smaller connections, and i give thanks to you all, as this is our collective work. I am also aware of several rogue copies of our work, floating about out in the wild, and mainly due to someone lodging the GEDCOM file for free with a commercial website, as these sites simply wish to make money! Either out of you, or others at some point, nothing is free unless its truly FOSS and commercial websites are certainly not that!
Thank goodness for Linux!
CORTMAN, CORTEMAN, COURTEMAN, COWARTMAN, CAUTMAN, CAURTMAN, COORTMAN, COARTMAN, CURTMAN, COULTMAN, COURMAN and maybe even COURTIER?
Its my firm belief these other names are a corruption from COURTMAN, as a puritanical researcher of that name, but concede any CORTMAN researcher will hold the same view, and rightly so. And that’s why I have made that a derivative name, like all the others mentioned here, on the Guilds website http://www.one-name.org but it might transpire the earliest recorded name could be CORTMAN, and I am prepared for that….i think! However, it is clear that some of these names are true Variants, and some or simply Deviants, as seen on the Guilds website.
And now i need to work out the good from the bad, to eliminate them from my research and make my life a little easier, thank you the Guild for clarifying this for me. :-) But for now the existing names are shown below.
CORTEMAN and Possibly COURTEMAN, so far seems to have been a Great Baddow, Essex invention, but all three names show in the early Parish records there.
COWARTMAN is so far a East Hanningfield, Essex invention, as i have not found this name elsewhere....yet!
CAUTMAN and CAURTMAN are a Happisburgh, Norfolk invention, and has been corrupted both Norfolk, and across the pond in Orleans County, NY State, USA, at Immigration.
COORTMAN has shown in Westminster, London, in the late 15th Century, and might even be earlier.
CURTMAN has been discovered in the Clergy Database for the Church of England, and somewhere along the line it was later corrected? to Courtman, and might have been an error in transcription in the first place.
COULTMAN has been found in records for the North Riding of Yorkshire, and another new variation. 1566, Groom: Gilbertus Coultman, Bride: Jeneta Ffurthe, Elland, Yorkshire. And looks like a complete new line in Yorkshire, although not all Families have been linked there yet. Further, the name has also been found in County Durham, Norfolk and the City of London, although only in tiny numbers, and makes me believe the centre for this name is still Yorkshire. So where did Gilbertus come from, and who started this line, Gilbertus?
COURMAN a Female, was found in a Tasmania prison in 1852, having been convicted of theft in Co Kerry, Ireland, and transported for seven years. A search on http://www.familysearch.org threw up a few others in Ireland, but not followed up yet, but clearly this is yet another corruption of Courtman and another new line......probably.
COURTIER is a possible variation of Courtman, and created from scribble made on the last Will of Marmaduke Courtman in 1690, in Bedford, and also the last Will of his Widow Mary in 1694, and on that document is clearly written as such, COURTIER. We know a Marmaduke was the son to Robert Courtman, in Bedford at this time, but was born 1700 and died 1702, and a second Marmaduke followed in 1702 that appeared to have survived. So was Marmaduke COURTIER just that, and not a COURTMAN as first thought? Looks like i need to research the name in Bedford just to eliminate him from the line, or could it be COURTIER is an early French version of COURTMAN?? and i haven’t even considered Latin yet!
The following could hold a clue:
A courtier (/ˈkɔːrtiə/; French: [kuʁtje]) is a person who is often in attendance at the court of a king or other royal personage. The earliest historical examples of courtiers were part of the retinues of rulers. Historically the court was the centre of government as well as the residence of the monarch, and the social and political life were often completely mixed together.
So that compares with COURTMAN being of the same flavour, so are the two just variations of a name, but which one? And obviously it has to be the earliest recorded name, and so far i have not researched COURTIER, but looks like i might need to do this in Bedford at least, in order to find our Marmaduke, and maybe also the earliest COURTIER in England to prove who came first. (i really didn’t need this!)
I have said this many times before, it was how the name was pronounced at the time of the event, with an accent, and if the Priest, Vicar, Clerk or record keeper was suitably familiar with the local names and spellings, of which i doubt, as the Country folk all spoke a local dialect back then, much stronger than today, and this varied from area to area. Also there could well have been a turnover of record keepers, and that adds to the corruption, and makes us amateur Genealogists lives very hard indeed. I have seen the name spelt differently in the same Parish, recorded by two different Clerks or Church Wardens on different occasions, and for the same Family, thus creating more than one name variant! Even the same Church Warden spelt the name differently, and on several occasions throughout his tenure in one Parish, and these people were all regulars at the same Parish Church. Lets not forget, spelling really had no convention until the late 18th Century, and only the gentry and wealthy were educated enough to read & write, leaving the peasants illiterate and probably not knowing how to spell their own name, hence the X on even civil registration Marriage records. That’s until the beginning of the Church schools, and then the National schools some time later, and then the great unwashed started to become educated…..but very slowly.
Proving all this is a full time job, as just trying to prove relationships in one name spelling is bad enough, but eight or more would be a nightmare, and so very time consuming, even just for one location such as Great Baddow, but i will have an attempt as they could turn out to be related, but my direct line hailed from Hatfield Peverel, Essex, and the next Parish to GB, but where did they come from before then???.....watch this space, as there are a couple of possibles being investigated.
So what’s in a surname anyway?
In England, the introduction of family names is generally attributed to the preparation of the Domesday Book in 1086, following the Norman conquest. Evidence indicates that surnames were first adopted among the feudal nobility and gentry, and only slowly spread to other parts of society. Some of the early Norman nobility who arrived in England during the Norman conquest differentiated themselves by affixing 'de' (of) before the name of their village in France. This is what is known as a territorial surname, a consequence of feudal landownership. In medieval times in France, such a name indicated Lordship, or ownership, of the village. But some early Norman nobles in England chose to drop the French derivations and call themselves instead after their new English holdings.
Surnames were uncommon prior to the 12th century, and still somewhat rare into the 13th; most European surnames were originally occupational or locational, and served to distinguish one person from another if they happened to live near one another (e.g., two different people named John could conceivably be identified as 'John Butcher' and 'John Chandler'
Occupational names include such simple examples as Smith (for a smith), Miller (for a miller), Farmer (for farm tax collectors or sometimes farmers), Thatcher (for a thatcher), Shepherd (for a shepherd), Potter (for a potter), and so on, as well as non-English ones, such as the German Eisenhauer (iron hewer, later Anglicized in America as Eisenhower) or Schneider (tailor) - or indeed, as in English, Schmidt (smith). There are also more complicated names based on occupational titles. In England it was common for servants to take a modified version of their employer's occupation or first name as their last name, adding the letter s to the word, although this formation could also be a patronymic. For instance, the surname Vickers is thought to have arisen as an occupational name adopted by the servant of a vicar, while Roberts could have been adopted by either the son or the servant of a man named Robert. A subset of occupational names in English are names thought to be derived from the medieval mystery plays. The participants would often play the same roles for life, passing the part down to their oldest sons. Names derived from this may include King, Lord, Virgin, and Death; the last is often wrongly thought to be an anglicization of the French name D'Ath. It is now thought that the surname D'Ath arose well after the surname Death was first used. The original meaning of names based on medieval occupations may no longer be obvious in modern English (so the surnames Cooper, Chandler, and Cutler come from the occupations of making barrels, candles, and cutlery, respectively).
Location (toponymic, habitation) names derive from the inhabited location associated with the person given that name. Such locations can be any type of settlement, such as: homesteads, farms, enclosures, villages, hamlets, strongholds or cottages. One element of a habitation name may describe the type of settlement. Examples of Old English elements are frequently found in the second element of habitational names. The habitative elements in such names can differ in meaning, according to different periods, different locations, or with being used with certain other elements. For example, the Old English element tūn may have originally meant "enclosure" in one name, but can have meant "farmstead", "village", "manor", or "estate" in other names.
This name is closely associated with the order of society in feudal times. It refers to the residence of the lord of a manor, by extension came to refer to one either living or employed in or about the manor. The surname Court derives from the Old French and Middle English 'court(e), curt', court, and ultimately from the Latin 'cohors' or, in its genitive form 'cohortis', yard or enclosure. The Middle English 'curt' was sometimes used also as a nickname meaning small or short. Variant forms of the surname Court are found as Corte, Curt or A'court, and Courtman. French equivalents are in Cour, Lacour(t) and Del(a)court. A Richard atte Curt and a William de la Court are mentioned in the Sussex Subsidy Rolls of 1296, and John Courtman is recorded in those of 1327. The marriage of Daniell Courtman and Deborah Dobbe was recorded at St. Leonard East cheap, London, on January 29th 1661. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Reginald Corte, which was dated 1181, Pipe Rolls of Suffolk, during the reign of King Henry 2nd, 'The Builder of Churches', 1154 - 1189. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.
© Copyright: Name Origin Research www.surnamedb.com 1980 - 2017
So the name Courtman means a man of, or around the court of a King, manor or castle, and simply translates to man of the court.....any court? Well probably, meaning that all the smaller lines of Courtman (and derivatives) may never actually be related, and never ever be linked. (OH NO James OH NO!! :-((
And this could go on for some length, but i will end it here to save you from falling asleep, if you have got this far without doing so already.
This Man is an unknown, and only this record has been found for him to date. He is so far the earliest recorded Courtman of that spelling.
'Sussex subsidy of 1327: The rape of Lewes', in The Three Earliest Subsidies For the County of Sussex 1296, 1327, 1332, ed. William Hudson (London, 1910), pp. 168-183. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/suss-record-soc/vol10/pp168-183
Villata de Ouyngedene. Johne Courtman, 1s 7d.
Translation: villata: a township, a village. (both in Latin and Spanish, but Ouyngedene is not found and could simply have been an individual property name) But other records found elsewhere, indicate it is “The Village of Ouyngedene but more likely Ovingdean of today” hence Villata de Ouyngedene is The Village of Ovingdean.
Source: Glossary of Latin words, Found in Records and Other English Manuscripts, But Not Occurring in Classical Authors. http://comp.uark.edu/~mreynold/recint1.htm#D Source: Sussex Index of places 1327: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/suss-record-soc/vol10/pp419-424#s15
2nd August 1438.
formerly, Robert Logan of Lastabryg, knight, d. St. A ., for his souls and familys weal, donated land near Leith, d. St. A., to the chapel of St. Anthony, then to be erected by the grant of James King of Scots and Henry bishop of St. Andrews for the brothers and canons of the monastery of St. Anthony, d. Vienne, and to John Courtman. Canon of the said monastery, and his successors. This donation the king and the bishop confirmed and, so that this may have greater validity, John Stele, present preceptor of the said chapel, supplicates the Pope to confirm the same. Concessum. Ferrara. From Scottish Supplication to Rome Eugenius IV
The Monastery has also been recorded as an Abbey, Church and even a Hospital, hence the confusion over its true title, but my take on this is that it was all of them during its life. Sadly though, the Monastery has been raised to the ground and only traces exist, and only discovered after some Archaeological digging, so no image or sketch even. Do not be confused with St Anthony's Chapel, and the ruins of that are close by on "the hill"
So was John a Knights Templer, or the order of the Knights of St John, or neither? follow the links and you decide.
Remember, although the Knights Templer effectively ended in 1307, some survivors found their way to Leith, Scotland, by a fleet of ships. And it is recorded that at least six Canons were at Leith, at one time, why so many? And the Templers were also known to have been in Hertford, County town of Hertfordshire, England, and Templers still exist as a secret order there today. By this very fact, it is more than probable John was one or the other, but i cant prove it!
This could make a study all of its own, and the Templers and Order of St John are documented elsewhere, and i am not going down this road, but John interests me, and like so many others!
Not to mention the “Black Madonna” just follow the links, interesting!
6 May 1460: John & William Courtman, Husbandman, Bulphan, Bulvan or Bulfan, Essex, England.
Inquisitions Post Mortem, Henry VII, Entries 351-400. Approx year 1460. 381 EDMUND SHAA, knt. Writ 6 May, 3 Hen. VII; inq. 4 Nov., 4 Hen. VII.
John Courtman and Joan his wife, daughter and heir of John Ive, acknowledged a fine of the under-mentioned lands to the said Edmund, John, and others, and the heirs of Edmund:— A messuage, 60a. land, 6a. meadow, 5a. wood, and 15s. rent in Bulvan, worth 5l., held of the said Abbess, service unknown. William Courtman, and others, enfeoffed the said Edmund, John, and others, and their heirs, of the under-mentioned lands:— Lands, tenements, rents, and services, in Bulvan, anciently called ‘Shermans,’ worth 3l., held of the said Abbess, by service of 1d.
A husbandman in England in the medieval and early modern period, was a free tenant farmer or small landowner. The social status of a husbandman was below that of a yeoman. The meaning of "husband" in this term is "master of house" rather than "married man". It has also been used to mean a practitioner of animal husbandry, or in perhaps more modern language, a rancher.
1480abt-1528: William Courtman, Brewer, City of London.
Plaintiffs: William Courtman, of London [brewer]. Defendants: The mayor and sheriffs of London.
Subject: Action by William Johnson for price of cloths, entrusted for sale or barter to complainant, who claims to have overpaid for the same goods. Certiorari. London Date: 1515-1518
William Courtman otherwise Clark (Clerk) a London vintner, by will proved 1528, left land in trust, the rent from which primarily was to pay for Easter expenses, including bread and wine at communion; the residue was to go to Courtman's heir for 20 years and thereafter to the poor. (fn. 81) In 1547, when Courtman's benefaction was somewhat differently defined, 66s. a year was also paid by the keepers of 33 cows which had been given by various benefactors for the support of a chantry priest. (fn. 82) The lands left by Courtman were sold by the Crown, with many others, to Thomas Bourchier and Henry Tanner in 1548. (fn. 83
Courtman v Courtman. Plaintiffs: Thomas, son and heir of Thomas COURTMAN
Source: All departments C - Records created, acquired, and inherited by Chancery, and also of the Wardrobe, Royal Household, Exchequer and various commissions Records of Equity Side: the Six Clerks C 1 - Court of Chancery: Six Clerks Office: Early Proceedings, Richard II to Philip and Mary C 1/971 - Detailed description at item level C 1/971/35-36 - Short title: Courtman v Courtman. Plaintiffs: Thomas, son and heir of Thomas COURTMAN.…
Looks like Thomas the younger took his Father, or his estate to Court.
Source: Archdeaconry of Norwich Probate Records Wills, Wills Registers, Will register (Hychekocke) Catalogue Ref: ANW, will register, Hychekocke, fo. 744 Title: Courtman, Robert, of Filby.
This Man is another unknown, and only this record has been found for him, and he is assumed to have been the incumbent of the Parish Church, maybe All Saints, but not proven. And this would be at the very tail end of the Reign of Mary 1st, 1516-1558, and the restoration of Catholicism.
Interesting fact: Mary is remembered for her restoration of Roman Catholicism after her half-brother Edward V1 short-lived Protestant reign. During her five-year reign, she had over 280 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian persecutions. After her death in 1558, her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her younger half-sister and successor
Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry and Anne Boleyn.
The name Boleyn was to feature in my location of Residence, not just once but twice! Spooky!!
John Fellowes, carpenter, and Thomas Courtman, labourer, both of Great Bardefelde, being laymen not having lands or tenements of the yearly value of 40s. for using nets called 'hayes' for taking conies (Rabbit’s) at Rayne Parke in the parish of Little Rayne.
Poaching in the Elizabethan times.
It seems Poaching was carried out by many folk, in Elizabethan and later periods, and still is to this day but on a much smaller scale. The gentry thought they had full rights to kill game on their, and anyone else’s land, and not the peasants it seems. So the poor took it on themselves to correct what they saw as an unjust law, and poached game where ever it roamed, and many were punished for taking the game, before the gentry had a chance to blow its brains out instead.
Now, the gentry had full rights to Hare hunting, but not Rabbits (conies) it seems, and the poor set out the nets to catch Rabbits, and often took Hares when they fell into the traps, fare game you might think?
Source: Crime in Early Modern England 1550-1750, by James A Sharpe.
Source: http://seax.essexcc.gov.uk/result_details.aspx?ThisRecordsOffSet=8&id=242238. Reference: Q/SR 24/12
My 10x Great Grandfather, and originally headed the Courtman tree, but now we have around three possible sets of parents for him. One said to be in Hatfield Peverel, one in Great Baddow and another in Woodham Mortimer, and all had a son called Jonas of the right time period, interesting! These are still being evaluated and researched and no firm conclusion has yet to be made by yet. But others have jumped in with both feet, but given no proof what so ever on the source or conclusion, tut, tut. Jonas is Buried Hatfield Peverel and the MI is being sought, and if legible could give us either an age, or indication of where born….maybe, and I have seen this with a few others this far back. Both Great Baddow and Woodham Mortimer, are only a couple of Parishes away from Hatfield Peverel, and not inconceivable that Jonas came from one of them, but of course needs proving.
Now there is an issue with the two early Jonas from HP, and some dates have been assumed or invented, and has muddied the waters some what. Thus making possibly a Father and son from maybe one record or person, and causing me some grief!! and for some considerable time, and finding original records this far back is challenging to say the least. Other "researchers" have invented facts, and backed them up with absolutely nothing, proving they are their invention and nothing more. But when you do it correctly, and get it right, Genealogy is great!!
Now if it takes me the rest of my life, and hopefully that’s some time to come, i hope to not only see the true picture with both Jonas, but also from whence he came. And i think for me, this has to be my number one goal to aim for, and this really does need sorting, in order to move further back and find his true Family, and my Ancestry.
Undertaker. Interesting description here.
A funeral director; someone whose business is to manage funerals, burials and cremations. (normal description)
Historical: A person receiving land in Ireland during the Elizabethan era, (1558-1603) so named because they gave an undertaking to abide by several conditions regarding loyalty to the crown, marriage, and using English as their spoken language. (no proof Jonas was of this category, but they were wealthy people back then, just another item to research)
Family and Education
1575 bap. 20 May 1577, 3rd s. of Thomas Courtman (d.1581), husbandman, of Mucking, Essex and w. Agnes. educ. L. Inn 1599, called 1606. m. Anne. bur. 12 Dec. 1615.
Asst. clerk of assize, Home circ. by 1593-1606; commr. codification of penal laws 1610. Feodary, Essex 1601-14, commr. sewers 1610-11.
The younger son of a minor Essex farmer, Courtman made his way at first in the lower reaches of the legal profession, but prospered sufficiently to secure admission to Lincoln’s Inn in his mid-twenties. In 1603 he witnessed the will of Sir Jerome Weston, a prominent Essex gentleman, in which he was asked to assess what Weston’s son-in-law, Sir Edward Pinchon, owed the estate. Four years later he was one of the tenants and inhabitants of Havering, in the same county, who signed a letter to the earl of Salisbury (Robert Cecil†) about the election of Sir William Ayloffe* as justice of the peace for the liberty. A sign of his legal eminence was his appointment in 1610 to the commission for codifying the laws, alongside such luminaries of the profession as William Hakewill* and William Noye*.
Courtman probably owed his election at Midhurst in 1614 to Sir Jerome Weston’s son Sir Richard, who had been returned there in 1604 and was closely connected with the lord of the borough, Anthony Browne, 2nd Viscount Montagu. He made no recorded speeches but was among those appointed on 13 Apr. to draft the address against undertakers, and, on 25 May, to consider the bill enabling the lands of Sir Robert Wroth II* to be sold for payment of debts. As a lawyer he was entitled to attend the committee for the repeal and continuance of expiring statutes, and he was one of those deputed to examine the notes delivered into the House by Ferdinando Pulton, the legal writer engaged on publishing a comprehensive edition of English statutes.
In the aftermath of the dissolution, Courtman was among the ‘men not overwrought with practice, and yet learned and diligent, and conversant in reports and records’, whom Sir Francis Bacon* recommended to the king ‘to restore the ancient use of [law] reporters’. However, nothing seems to have come of this proposal. Courtman was buried in St. Mary Magdalen, Milk Street, in the city of London on 12 Dec. 1615. Administration of his estate was granted to his widow 18 days later. He had no known descendants.
Ref Volumes: 1604-1629
Author: Alan Davidson
Jurors for the body of the County. Rochford: Ralph Cortman sworn.
Rochford is a Town and an old Hundred of Essex, in the southern part of the County of Essex, and just north of Southend and the Airport. When referring to Rochford it could mean the Town, or any of the Hundreds that fell under its jurisdiction.
Essex probably originated as a shire in the time of Aethelstan. The Domesday Survey listed nineteen hundreds, corresponding very closely in extent and in name with those that were in use until the nineteenth century.
John seemed to have had several Wives.
Session Rolls, Michaelmas 1586, Recognizance of Robert Marchaunt of Tollesbury, yeoman, to keep the peace towards John Courtman, John Bonde, John Pollard and William Pollard.
Elizabethan Life: Year 1591. COURTMAN John, Tollesbury, appeared to have several "wives" 168: Source: An index of names from : Elizabethan Life : Morals and the Church Courts by Dr F G Emmison.
During the late 14th to 18th centuries, yeomen were farmers who owned land (freehold, leasehold or copyhold). Their wealth and the size of their landholding varied. Sir Anthony Richard Wagner, Garter Principal King of Arms, wrote that "a Yeoman would not normally have less than 100 acres" (40 hectares) "and in social status is one step down from the Landed gentry, but above, say, a husbandman." Often it was hard to distinguish minor landed gentry from the wealthier yeomen, and wealthier husbandmen from the poorer yeomen.
The Concise Oxford Dictionary (edited by H.W. & F.G. Fowler, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1972 reprint, p. 1516) states that a yeoman was "a person qualified by possessing free land of 40/- (shillings) annual [feudal] value, and who can serve on juries and vote for a Knight of the Shire. He is sometimes described as a small landowner, a farmer of the middle classes."
The term had a military sense as in the Yeomanry Cavalry of the late 18th century and Imperial Yeomanry of the late 1890s. The 'yeoman archer' was unique to England and Wales (in particular, the south Wales areas of Monmouthshire with the famed archers of Gwent; and Glamorgan, Crickhowell, and Abergavenny; and South West England with the Royal Forest of Dean, Kingswood Royal Forest near Bristol, and the New Forest). Though Kentish Weald and Cheshire archers were noted for their skills, it appears that the bulk of the 'yeomanry' was from the English and Welsh Marches (border regions). The original Yeomen of the Guard (originally archers) chartered in 1485 were most likely of Brittonic descent, including Welshmen and Bretons. They were established by King Henry VII, himself a Briton who was exiled in Brittany during the Wars of the Roses. He recruited his forces mostly from Wales and the West Midlands of England on his journey to victory at Bosworth Field. Yeomen were often constables of their parish, and sometimes chief constables of the district, shire or hundred. Many yeomen held the positions of bailiffs for the High Sheriff or for the shire or hundred. Other civic duties would include churchwarden, bridge warden, and other warden duties. It was also common for a yeoman to be an overseer for his parish. Yeomen, whether working for a lord, king, shire, knight, district or parish served in localised or municipal police forces raised by or led by the landed gentry. Some of these roles, in particular those of constable and bailiff were carried down through families. Yeomen often filled ranging, roaming, surveying, and policing roles. In Chaucer's Friar's Tale, a yeoman who is a bailiff of the forest who tricks the Summoner turns out to be the devil ready to grant wishes already made.
So now you know!
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yeoman wikipedia.org/wiki/Yeoman
Title: Presentments for the Hundred of Ongar and Harlow and the Duchy of Lancaster
Level: Series, SESSIONS ROLLS. Level: File, MIDSUMMER 1586
We do present three stiles that William Cortman of the parish of "Lockton" [Loughton] ought to make, "being a church way from Bockers hell to Checkwell church" [Chigwell].
History of John Courtman, Born between 1625 and 1630, Thorpe Malsor, Northants. Admin Sizar at Trinity, 10th February 1645-6, of Essex.
Born at Sible Hedingham. Matric 1646. Scholar 1649: B.A. 1649-50: M.A. 1653. B.D. 1660. Fellow 1650. Rector of Thorpe Malsor, Northants until 1662, then ejected. (see note on the Great Ejection 1662) Afterwards practised Physics.
Died Feb 9th 1891. Buried at Thorpe Malsor.
There is a conflict with the place of birth for John, the Cambridge Alumni gives Thorpe Malsor, but the IGI shows Henman, Essex (probably Sible Hedingham)
The following House of Commons extract shows John as a physician: House of Lords, Catalogue Ref. HL, Creator(s): House of Lords, Records of the Parliament Office, House of Lords House of Lords: Journal Office: Main Papers - ref. HL/PO/JO/10 1509-1700 FILE - Main Papers 98 - 125 - ref. HL/PO/JO/10/1/385 - date: 19 Mar 1679 - 4 Apr 1679 item: L. Mountagu of Boughton - ref. HL/PO/JO/10/1/385/102 - date: 22 March 1679
hit[from Scope and Content] Certificate of John Courtman, physician for many years to Lord Mountagu of Boughton, that his Lordship was too ill to be able to come without danger to London. See Lords Journals, XIII. 471. [Dated 18 March and produced by Wellesborne Sill and Robert Dixon at the Bar this day. MS. Min.]
Will of John Courtman of Thorpe Malsor, Northamptonshire 23/03/1692 PROB 11/408
Part extract from Familysearch: John Courtman Compact Disc #6 Pin #273312 Sex: M Birth: 1626 Place: ,Henham,Essex,England Christening: Place: (65-1691) Death: 9 Feb 1691/92 Place: (MI) Burial: 12 Feb 1691/92 Place: Chancel,Thorpe Malsor,Northamptonshire,England
Source: Will extract. M.I. for Thorpe Malsor. Cambridge University Alumni, 1261-1900. OPR extracts for Castle Hedingham, Sible Hedingham, Bedford, St Paul, Thorpe Malsor.
S.T.B meaning: The Bachelor of Sacred Theology (Latin: Sacrae Theologiae Baccalaureus; abbreviated S.T.B.) is a graduate-level academic degree in theology.
John attended Cambridge University, probably as a 16 year old, and later became Rector of All Saints, Thorpe Malsor, Northamptonshire and was ejected in 1662 following the restoration of the Monarchy with Charles 2. He then became a Physician and also the Physician to Lord Montague of Boughton. Recorded in the Nonconformity list 1672, Preached in the house of the Patron of living. Nine of his Eleven sons also attended Cambridge, and later went on to hold varying levels in the Parishes they were appointed, along with two known Grandsons:
John b 1657, Admin Sizar Clare 1675, finally becoming Rector of Thorpe Malsor, Buried there. Maunsell b 1662, Admin Sizar Trinity 1676, Vicar at Draughton, Northamptonshire, Buried there. Richard b 1663, Clerk in orders at Bedford. Robert b 1664, Admin Sizar Sidney 1683, Rector of Gayton Thorpe, Norfolk and also Vicar of Castle Hedingham, Essex at the same time and Buried there. Christopher b 1666, born and died Thorpe Malsor aged just 20y. Thomas b abt 1667, born and died Thorpe Malsor aged just 6m. Humphry b 1669, Admin Sizar Sidney 1689, 1692 B.A. 1698 M.A. Curate, Stanton juxta Dale, Derbyshire. Henry b 1673, Admin Sizar Pembroke 1691, Emanuel 1692, 1694 B.A. 1698 M.A. Vicar of Ilkeston, Derbyshire, probably buried there 1699. Seems poor Henry never lived long. Thomas b 1674, Buried 1703, born and died Thorpe Malsor aged 29y.
The Hearth Tax returns for England, have been painstakingly transcribed, deciphered, converted to modern English and with much background work in order to bring this wonderful names index to Historians and Genealogists, and for that I give thanks.
Part extraction below only, see the full document on Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hearth_tax
One shilling (5 new pence today) was liable to be paid for every fire hearth or stove, in all dwellings, houses, edifices or lodgings, and was payable at Michaelmas, 29 September and on Lady Day, 25 March. The tax thus amounted to two schillings per hearth or stove per year.
So for the name Courtman in Essex, we can see only a few names have been recorded as having at least one Hearth, and in the return of 1670, we can see some where exempt as either less than two Hearths, were poor or Widowed. Only two showed three Hearths and although probably not all considered wealthy, they were certainly not poor either.
We can see (Christopher) Gent Courtman, 1625-1690abt, in Castle Hedingham had three Hearths. As did Thomas in Tollesbury, but little is known about him.
Jana (Jane) in St James, Colchester had two, little is known about her. As did Jn (Johannes or modern day John) in Woodham Ferrars (Ferrers) little is known about him.
With seven others on one Hearth, including Widow Courtman in Feering, and another Widow in St Botolph, Colchester. Little is known about both these Ladies, but they both married a Courtman at some point, that we do know.
The hearth tax was levied between 1662 and 1689 on each householder according to the number of hearths in his or her dwelling, but not all returns are available, follow the link.
Source: Hearth Tax site seems to have disappeared. 5 Jan 2018.
1662: Thomas Courtman, Immigration and Passenger list, Virginia, America.
Source Citation: Place: Virginia; Year: 1662; Page Number: 500.
Source Citation: Place: Virginia; Year: 1655; Page Number: 309.
22 Oct, Mary Golding of Devizes, Wilts, Spinster, to Thomas Courtman, Merchant, 4yrs Virginia.
5 Nov, Arthur Skinner of London to Thomas Courtman, 4yrs Virginia.
There is no proof these three records belong to the same Man, but its more than probable that at least two are connected, if not all three, and as usual needs proving. The big question of course is where did he come from?
Courtman Charity for Education.
Humphrey Courtman was Vicar of St. Mary’s Ilkeston between 1710 and 1736 and he recognized a problem with the education of the poor.
In their ‘History of Ilkeston’ published in 1899 Trueman and Marston noted: “The Reverend Humphrey Courtman, by his will in 1704, gave land producing 7s. per annum for the benefit of poor widows, and land producing 15s. per annum for teaching three poor children, vested in Mr. John Flamsteed. The former land was situated in the Mill Field, and the Enclosure Commissioners allotted the North Field meadow in lieu of that and Hunt’s Charity. The latter was, in 1828, let to Joseph Burrows at £2 per annum. A few trees on it produced £14, which, in 1828, was in the hands of the Vicar, who paid 14s. per annum as the interest of it. The rent and interest were then being paid to the Sunday School.”
John Bell: http://www.stmarysilkeston.co.uk
Henry was the Brother to George below.
Henry was born in Germany in 1808. He travelled to Texas from New Orleans as a member of Capt. Thomas Breece's company of New Orleans Greys and took part in the siege of Bexar. Courtman remained in Bexar and died in the battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836.
His brother, George F. Courtman, was killed in the Goliad Massacre.
Daughters of the American Revolution, The Alamo Heroes and Their Revolutionary Ancestors (San Antonio, 1976). Daughters of the Republic of Texas, Muster Rolls of the Texas Revolution (Austin, 1986). Bill Groneman, Alamo Defenders (Austin: Eakin, 1990). Walter Lord, A Time to Stand (New York: Harper, 1961; 2d ed., Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1978).
The Goliad Massacre: 27 March 1836: , the tragic termination of the Goliad Campaign of 1836, is of all the episodes of the Texas Revolution the most infamous. Though not as salient as the battle of the Alamo, the massacre immeasurably garnered support for the cause against Mexico both within Texas and in the United States, thus contributing greatly to the Texan victory at the battle of San Jacinto and sustaining the independence of the Republic of Texas. The execution of James W. Fannin, Jr.'s command in the Goliad Massacre was not without precedent, however, and Mexican president and general Antonio López de Santa Anna, who ultimately ordered the exterminations, was operating within Mexican law. Therefore, the massacre cannot be considered isolated from the events and legislation preceding it.
After the executions the bodies were burned, the remains left exposed to weather, vultures, and coyotes, until June 3, 1836, when Gen. Thomas J. Rusk, who had established his headquarters at Victoria after San Jacinto and was passing through Goliad in pursuit of Gen. Vicente Filisola's retreating army, gathered the remains and buried them with military honors. Some of the survivors attended the ceremony.
The Germanic name for Courtman is normally Kourtman or Kortmann, but with as many variations as in England. But Kourtman is probably the correct one for Henry and George, although it is Courtman on the ships departure manifest as given by Germany! I have seen several Courtman from both Germany, and even Russia with both spellings, and both could be correct. The English speaking Countries sometimes use a C where others might use a K, so who am I to say otherwise. However, clearly Henry and George have full English style names, and more work to do here in order to put the record strait. Both for the Courtman study, and maybe also for the Texas archives, and yet another big challenge lay ahead. Its important to add that the UK was ruled by the Hanoverian Monarchy. 1714-1901, and George 3rd reigned at the time George Courtman was born, and might have some bearing on his naming……perhaps!
In the 1851 census, Samuel was shown as Convict Guard while living in Plumstead, as this was a short distance from the Thames it could be he was Guarding a Convict ship or Hulk, moored up close by. But what we do know is, that this was the start of his career as a Prison Warder, leading to Chief Warder at both Parkhurst, IOW, and Dartmoor, Devon. It was Dartmoor that he retired and ended his career.
Samuel is known to have had two wives, Ann Feltham giving him seven Children, one died an infant and another died aged 20y. His Wife Ann Died 1864 in Prison quarters, Gillingham, Kent. Then came Jane Payne in 1866 when Samuel was working at Swaffham Prison, Norfolk, and she gave him a further six Children, with two sons from that marriage dying young.
Samuel later described himself as a Gentleman.
Samuel started the Devon line, and descendants are still there to this day.
George is My second cousin, he was born 1859 in St Martin, Jersey, Channel Isles, to John William and Priscilla Ann (Kent) Courtman.
Background: Wilhelm was forced to abdicate after 1918 and went into exile in the Netherlands, and it is thought that’s where he remained, indicating George probably worked for the Kaiser before 1914, but not yet proven.
The image shows the Kaiser aboard one of the five Meteor class racing Yachts, he had built between 1887-1914, but the date and version are unknown at this time. It just might be that George is in the photo, as the Kaiser entered regattas both in the UK and Germany, and this was where George probably came in, with his knowledge of local Portsmouth and south coast waters. It is hoped that evidence can be found to confirm, or deny George is in the photo, and maybe proof of the actual Yacht he Captained, when and where, and Gosport is of course favourite.
George Died a Bankrupt in 1936, leaving his Wife and Chief Petty Officer son to fight the Courts for the Family Home. I believe the outcome was in favour of the Family, but needs documented proof of that, just for the record.
Domestic Titles (ASA Championships) 200 yards breaststroke 1907 09 16 Birmingham 2.55.4 1908 07 08 Manchester 2.47.2 1909 09 23 London 2.46.2 1910 Sheffield 2.47.8 1913 09.13 Weston s Mare 2.43.0
British Record 200 yards breaststroke 1914 07.28 Garston 2.41.0
World Records 200 metres breaststroke 1914 07 28 Garston 2.56.6 400 metres breaststroke 1912 12 12 Manchester 6.14.2 500 metres breaststroke 1912 12 12 Manchester 7.51.0
Olympic Results 200 metres breaststroke 1908 London Second in Heat 7 3.18.4 1912 Copenhagen Fourth in Finals 3.08.8 400 metres breaststroke 1912 Copenhagen Third in Finals 6.36.4
CWGC: Private 3012/250755 of D Company of the 1st/6th Battalion, Manchester Regiment CWGC Casualty Details Percy Courtman 1917
Taken from: “A centennial history of Stretford ASC”, by Doug Francis:
1841 Head count Use the off site link for a full breakdown
1851 Head count Use the off site link for a full breakdown
1861 Head count Use the off site link for a full breakdown
1871 Head count Use the off site link for a full breakdown
Northampton & Kent
Hunts & Rutland
Glouc´er, Bucks, Lincoln, Suffolk & York’s
1881 Head count Use the off site link for a full breakdown
1891 Head count Use the off site link for a full breakdown
1901 Head count Use the off site link for a full breakdown
1911 Head count Use the off site link for a full breakdown
Hunt’s, Rutland, Durham
Denbigh & York’s
This reduced series of Census stats have only been created using the main name of my research, COURTMAN, and no variants have been included…..Maybe another day!
It is clear Tables do not render well in this online Application and Text editor, and I might replace them with map images, as they do render very well on most websites, but might need adjusting to look the part. That’s why I don’t use these applications on my main website, and just pure html, that also calls for images instead of embedding them, that’s not the right way to go!
Charts 1841-1911 will show actual name counts, and it is hoped the two missing decades, 1891 and 1901, will be included here. Use the Head count off site links for a more in depth Breakdown, but don’t forget to return!
All figures in the above tables are an approximate, and should not be used as a definitive guide to numbers for any Census, and the original returns statistics should be consulted for accuracy, if you need actual figures in your research. It depends on which site you use to determine the numbers, so tread carefully here and do your own calculations, if you really have a burning need.
1871-1911: For none wide screen monitors. Please also be aware that “shire” has been removed from all Shire County names, and some other Counties have been abbreviated to allow them to fit into the above tables. The font has also been reduced, as by then the name had spread to many Counties with many more names, and some extra tweaking needed to be done to make it presentable. Any UK based researcher will be comfortable with these changes, but any overseas researcher might need to consult their favourite search engine, or consult GENUKI, and always a good guide on Counties anyway.
So, what can we take from all these Census return numbers? Well firstly, if we take 1841 to 1861 there was little change, and things rumbled along with slightly more Births than Burials. 1871 produced a spurt in Births along with similar for 1881, and these two decades were a time of expansion for the name, and the Nation as a whole. Not shown here yet, but 1891 saw a decline, and might be due to sickness, Emigration or troop movements abroad in the Sudan and East India. 1901 saw a huge 50% increase over 1891, and one can only guess as to why, but better health conditions played a big part. 1911, the last available Census to the public, again shows a big increase, but half as much as 1901, and of course this was before the killing fields of the first world war, and the 1921 Census when released will be an interesting one for me, as it will be the first one with my Parents :-)
Name concentrations 1841-1911, conclusion.
Well for me this is a big eye opener, as I had always assumed (never assume anything in genealogy James, you know that) Essex would have been the main centre for the name, but oh no!
1841 it was Norfolk with 31 names, and Cambridgeshire with 29, then followed by Essex with a low 22. Shock horror!!
1851 it was the turn of Cambridgeshire with a big 51 names, then Essex with 18 and Norfolk a low 9, and Lancashire picking up some of those Norfolk folk with 12 names. I also suspect some crossed the border to Cambridgeshire, as they were mainly Ag Labs in those days and moved to where the work was, and the Wisbech area seemed to be the centre of many Families, and is on the border of the two Counties.
1861 saw little change, just some juggling between Counties, and now we see Northampton, Kent, Devon and Cornwall now showing growth from just one individual each.
1871 saw Essex take top spot with 37, Cambridgeshire with 22, Lancashire with 17 due mainly to migration for the textile industry, and Norfolk held onto 10. Now we can also see London making a bigger show with 15 names, and this is distinct from the four surrounding Shire Counties of Essex, Middlesex, Surrey and Kent. We also see Hampshire, Warwickshire, Channel Islands, Sussex, Glamorgan, Huntingdonshire with Rutland, Gloucestershire, Buckinghamshire and Yorkshire making a showing with a few individuals. This decade seemed to be the first main one for expansion, as the name was now spread all along the Eastern Counties from Durham, down to the South Eastern Counties and along to Hampshire, and a jump over to Devon due to the Royal Navy and the Plymouth Dockyard, and of course Samuel Courtman now chief Warder at Dartmoor, and starting the Devon line.
1881 saw yet another growth in numbers, and Essex held its top spot with 41 names and a slow growth. Lancashire came second with 23 names, while Cambridgeshire followed closely with 20 and similar to 1871. We also see Surrey make a showing with 10, and all due to two families from Essex heading down to find work, and still working on the land, and starting the Beddington, Surrey line.
1891 was an odd decade, as we saw a decline in numbers for the first time, but a bigger demographic spread, and now Yorkshire came into play with 9 names. It could be argued that the name now spread to around two thirds of England, and just the County of Glamorgan still for Wales with just 5. Also Emigration would have reduced the numbers yet again, and like the 1861-1871 Decades.
1901 saw no names at all in Wales, but Essex still held the top spot with 39 names and a slight dip, Surrey and Cambridgeshire holding 25 names, and Lancashire with 21, and others making little headway. Compared to 1891 we see the name retracting from a few Counties, and this is quite normal as you went where the work was.
1911 saw little change in demographics with the exception of a return to Wales, and we now see Glamorgan, 5, Denbighshire, 1, and Flintshire, 5, being the start of two footholds there. Flintshire of course is the birth place of a certain Alan Courtman, one of the “gang of four” I call them, that started all this hard work back in the 1980s. We can see Essex with 41, London 38 and Surrey with 32, Lancashire on 24, Northamptonshire on 22, Cambridgeshire 21, Lincolnshire and Derbyshire on 17 and Norfolk slipping right down with just 7! Where have all the Norfolk Courtman gone?
Off site link to Name Concentrations & Statistics Within England and Wales Census 1841-1911, a free interactive site for all names in the Census of any use to Genealogists. This gives a very useful range of statistics on any given name, for any Census return 1841-1911, and has been taken directly from the returns statistics themselves, as far as I can make out, and shows the Surname distribution for each Census. No registration required, nice one, just enjoy.
1939 Register: Background: During the second World War, 1939-1945, there would have normally been a Census in 1941, but that was cancelled for obvious reasons. In December 1938 it was announced in the House of Commons that in the event of war, a National Register would be taken that listed the personal details, of every civilian in Great Britain and Northern Ireland. and not the Armed Forces! On September 1st 1939, Germany invaded Poland, putting the wheels in motion for Britain to declare war on the 3rd. On September 5th, the National Registration Act received royal assent and Registrar General Sir Sylvanus Vivian, announced that National Registration Day would be September 29th 1939. Having issued forms to more than 41 million people, the enumerators were charged with the task of visiting every household in Great Britain and Northern Ireland to collect the names, addresses, martial statuses and other key details of every civilian in the country, issuing identity cards on the spot, and this actually lasted right up to 1952!
As there was no 1941 Census, the 1939 Register can be looked upon as a substitute Census, and thankfully is available to view right now. But don’t forget the 100 year rule. The record of anyone born less than 100 years ago is closed because they are deemed to potentially still be alive. (if you can prove that they are dead you may be able to get the record opened). The 1939 Register is a useful resource for family, social and local historians.
As the 1931 census for England and Wales was destroyed by fire during the Second World War, and with no census taken in 1941, the 1939 Register provides the most complete survey of the population of England and Wales between 1921 and 1951, hence my review when the time comes in 2021, and not too far off.
1939: So in Essex there were just 32 names listed under Courtman. I have not actually started researching this register yet, and my interpretation could be wrong, but i will search soon in order to firstly find my own Family, and maybe later as many of the wider Family as possible. But for now i have created a draft Name distribution & Concentration Table, for all known names in England and Wales, but sadly the Channel Islands are missing :-(
A point to remember when searching the 1939 Register database for a Family name by Country, just England or Wales to date, as that is what is available at www.findmypast.co.uk, as at June 2017. It will throw everything at you, including what looks like Family by Marriage, and gave me nearly three thousand names instead of the 269 i should have! For a one-name study that was not helpful, but for wider researching it might be useful, you just need lots of patience, and of course a subscription! You just need to be more specific in your searches..
But the gap between 1911 and 1939 is too big to be of any great help coming forward, i think. And might just stick to my own known Family, and this needs some careful thought as to its usefulness V cost for others. And for that i will need to subscribe to gain full access, and something i loath doing anyway, and my credits would go nowhere fast! Should i still be around, this can be reviewed when the 1921 Census is released, and probably 2021. Then it would be useful to gather all those in the 1939 Register at some later time, considering the 1931 will not be available, and for that i am prepared to cough up part of my Pension, whatever that’s worth then! (not a lot I hear you say!)
1939 Register Head Count, England & Wales only. taken on 29 September at the outbreak of World War 2.
Channel Islands: Sadly the Islands are not yet part of the resources at www.findmypast.co.uk under the 1939 Register, at this time, so has fallen off the radar as far as the 1939 Register is concerned. However, i do know the Island of Jersey has the registration cards from the German Occupation of Jersey, during the Second World War, with information and images of over 30,000 Islanders who lived in Jersey during the Occupation.
http://catalogue.jerseyheritage.org/categories/german-occupation-registration-cards and are a direct replacement for the 1939 Register. Cost ££
Off site link to http://www.findmypast.co.uk/1939register 41 million lives recorded in one day at the outbreak of World War II.
Off site link to http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk 1939 Register help pages National Archives research guides/1939-register.
Some of these are just the Index scribblings of the Court case, and the full Calendar of Prisons documents need to be found to add some meat to the bones, and something the Australians do so well with their records.
27 Oct 1567: Thomas Courtman, Great Bardefelde, Essex, England.
This item repeated from the Early Courtman History section.
John Fellowes, carpenter, and Thomas Courtman, labourer, both of Great Bardefelde, being laymen not having lands or tenements of the yearly value of 40s. for using nets called 'hayes' for taking conies at Rayne Parke in the parish of Little Rayne.
Source: Crime in Early Modern England 1550-1750, by James A Sharpe. Source: http://seax.essexcc.gov.uk/result_details.aspx?ThisRecordsOffSet=8&id=242238. Reference: Q/SR 24/12
Date of trial, 1 Oct 1853, Old Bailey.
Sentenced at the Old Bailey to three Months Hard Labour in Prison.
Source: Sentence notification, David Courtman, Old Bailey, 21 Oct 1835.
Source: The Morning Chronicle, Wednesday, 22 Oct 1835.
No indication of where he resided, or actually came from, as some cases could have been referred to the Old Bailey, but maybe not in a simple case as this. Also, no idea of where he was sent!
Hannah is my 3x Great Aunt. She was transported to Australia as a Convict, below is an extract from the ERO Quarter Sessions, and a record of her Arrival.
Hannah Courtman, b 1818, Occ Servant / Nursery maid
5 feet 2.5 inch tall, fair, ruddy and slightly freckled complexion, light brown hair, grey eyes, scars on ball of left thumb, on back of third finger, on left hand, on heel of left hand, on back of right hand.
OFFENCE. obtaining goods under false pretences. TRIED, Essex quarter sessions 18 October 1836 SENTENCE: seven years, no former convictions.
TRANSPORTED: Henry Wellesley, together with 139 females and their thirty nine children. NOTES, Hannah was first held in Chelmsford jail and then London (Woolwich) for a total nine months, with London, probably Woolwich, being the location from where she was shipped to NSW.
1, obtained a six pound leg of lamb from the butcher shop of James Gladwin, Springfield, and booked it to a Susannah chevely, formally Hanna's employer. 2, she obtained three pairs of shoes from the shop of Samuel .................... and booked them to an Ann hicks, wife of henry hicks, miller of Springfield. Mrs hicks said she did not know Hanna. 3, Hanna claimed to have been in service in white chapel in London, at the time of the offence.
NOTES, the process book of indictments 1836 / 40, Ref q / spb22 records she received seven years for the first offence, fourteen years for the second. The Australian convict records only records she received seven years. Voyage Date as shown in Ancestry: 17 July 1837 Further details of the voyage on National Archives: Folio 2: Hannah Courtman, aged 19, spinster; disease or hurt, catarrh. Put on sick list, 8 October 1837. Discharged 28 October 1837.
The Arrival Record shows: Convict Arrivals in New South Wales 1788 – 1842. Hannah Courtman Date of arrival in NSW 22 Dec 1837 Ship HENRY WELLESLEY Vessel
Hunter Valley convicts arriving on the Henry Wellesley in 1837
The Henry Wellesley was one of four convict ships bringing female prisoners to New South Wales in 1837, the others being the Margaret, Sir Charles Forbes, Sarah & Elizabeth.
A total of 533 female convicts arrived in the colony in 1837.
One of the women disembarking on 3rd January was Hannah Courtman from Essex. In England Hannah had been interviewed by John Ward while she was incarcerated in Chelmsford gaol under sentence of seven years transportation for theft.. John Ward later gave evidence before the Molesworth Select Committee on Transportation. In reply to his queries as to her attitude to being transported she replied that having lost her character she would be very glad to go. (Hannah later married John Anderson and raised a large family in New South Wales)
From the interview and her admission, it seems young Hannah had realised she had sunk very low, and appeared to have accepted her lot. And at the young age of just 19y, she must have wondered what was to become of her, and maybe even not seeing her Family ever again. It made me think of my own Granddaughter, as she is now aged 18y, and not too far away from where Hannah was in life, and i shudder to think of her in those times should she have strayed off the path, it was such a brutal regime for the working classes. Fortunately, after a couple of wrong turns in NSW, Hannah seemed to have come good. Married, settled down and raised 8 known Children, with 5 Girls (two died young Adults) and 3 Boys, and Descendants are still in the area today. Hannah died in 1873 at the age of 53y, Penrith, Western Sydney, NSW, and probably never ever did see her Essex Family again. She is Buried in St. Stephen the Martyr Anglican Churchyard Cemetery?, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia. Where her Scott’s born Husband John Anderson, was also thought to be Buried in 1864, aged just 45y.
Source: Sentencing to Departure - Prison Hulks & Convict Gaols
Source: NSW Convict Women on Ships arriving from England and Ireland 1788-1828
Robert was located in the Tasmania Goal in 1844, having been convicted of stealing a sheep in 1843, and transported for 10 Years in 1844 aboard the Ship the Equestrian (1). His trial was held in the Court in Isle of Ely, Cambridgeshire 18th Oct 1843. The Conduct record for Robert shows he worked on the ship as Capstan of upper deck, he never had it easy on that three month voyage. His general conduct was recorded as very good, and might have helped how he was treated, but only my speculation as we will never know.
The Convict number for Robert was 12722 as recorded in the inmate book, but the Archives of Tasmania portal site shows 15315 in the index, searching on that number never found him, and is completely for the wrong ship and date. Looks like a transcription error, but i found him anyway using logic.
He is recorded to have been released on Probation after fifteen months of arrival, and recorded three times to have worked at a Station (farm)......... in Victoria Valley, Tasmania, in 1845. Following this, in August of 1845 he was released from the first stage (presume this means rehabilitation) unfortunately the hand writing is hard to make out, so not all words are clear. The remarks section of his record shows some more information, but again the hand writing is not clear, but the dates show: 2/9/45 (2nd Sep 1845) & 9/10/45 (9th Oct 1845) Ch-st that looks like Chest, another long stay of 12 (days) 1st Feb 1846, then 15th Feb 1846 to Hospital. He was recorded to have died soon after, but no record of death has been found after a search of the Tasmanian archives.
Presumed buried Tasmania, but record not yet found.
Roberts Son Thomas later trained as a Blacksmith, then as a journeyman in 1851 he was in Wisbech St Peter, then went on to Piddington, Northamptonshire, where he and Wife Maria started the Northampton line. Thomas died 1905, Maria died 1909, buried St John the Baptist, Piddington, Northamptonshire.
Research source: Sentencing to Departure - Prison Hulks & Convict Gaols
1847-1877: Robert Courtman, Emneth, Norfolk, England.
Criminal record and imprisonment.
Court: Swaffham Prison and Sessions: Theft of one fork.
In 1876 another Robert, a Cousin to Robert of West Walton, was sent to serve ten years Penal Servitude, and the final straw seemed to be stealing a Fork. He is seen in the 1881 Census in Dartmoor Prison, and about half way through his sentence. In the record from the Calendar of Prisons, we can see the Criminal record for Robert, well most of it due to a fold in the book, and he seemed to have been a serial Rouge. He had spent several years behind bars on previous occasions, and seems to have learnt nothing.
Record as recorded in the Calendar of Prisons at his last Trial.
Swaffham Prison and Sessions, Norfolk:
Metropolitan Police District. Habitual Drunkards - Licensing act, 1902.
Age: 43, Height. 5ft 3in. Build, Medium. Complexion. Fresh. Hair. Dark brown. Eyes. Hazel. Shape of nose. Pug. Shape of Face, Oval.
Peculiarities or marks. Scar over left Eye, left Arm amputated at Elbow.
Occupation. Prostitute. Court convicted: South Western. Fined 10s. or 7 days impt. In default.
Emma was born 1858 in Hern Hill, Brixton, and the second child to Joseph and Maria Ellen (Barker) Courtman. Her Mother hailed from Cambridgeshire, and it is thought Joseph also, but not yet proven where he hailed from. Emma appears not to have married, and might be a consequence of her disability, and the need to simply get by forcing her into prostitution. Her Father Joseph, was recorded firstly as a Messenger for the London and Westminster Bank, and then in 1858 when Maria was born he is shown as a Cab Driver, Master. And this would probably be a Hansom Cab, as they were the main type used around that time, and the type often seen in 19th Century period dramas like Sherlock Holmes. In 1881 when Maria was aged 23y, she shows no occupation, and again might be a consequence of her disability, as her Mother was now shown as a Annuitant. Emma would have been required to earn her keep or get Married, especially as the other three girls were still young.
On 27 September Brian Courtman was sentenced at Leicester Crown Court to 18 years in prison for a series of sexual offences, dating back to 1994. His crimes were first unmasked when a 13-year-old girl disclosed to her mother that Courtman had abused her. After his subsequent arrest, another victim came forward with a story of systematic abuse at Courtman's hands. Courtman was found guilty of 13 extremely serious offences, including seven counts of rape, sexual assault and indecency with a child. The victims gave evidence at trial and provided compelling victim personal statements, which helped to provide the prosecution with a solid case against Courtman.
East Midlands Rape and Serious Sexual Offences Team
No matter how distasteful this record is, he is a convicted Criminal and a Courtman unfortunately, and is only entered here because of his name and prison sentence.
Courtman House, 40 Maltese Road, Chelmsford, Essex, England.
A very large and substantial house, saved from demolition thankfully and now converted into flats.
Frank Whitmore was an influential architect in Essex, in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. in 1882 a business consotium formed by Whitmore, purchased the Coval Hall Estate, Chelmsford, and laid out a residential development. He designed two buildings in this development, both completed around 1885, Maltese House (now Courtman House, 40 Malteses Road) and a lodge (now demolished) Courtman House is a handsome brick villa with distinctive porch and fine detailing, where he lived until he died in 1920.
Found the location ok, but Courtman house evades me still, tut, tut.
Clearly a modern estate, so who was the Courtman? The Northampton Archives were of little help here, and nothing shows in an internet search, leaving me to probably spend many hours researching the Archives on my next trip back.
Still trying to find the Courtman this road is dedicated to.
Gravel road with a few properties, then a dead end.
Was this dedicated to the Brothers Henry who died 1836 at the Alamo, San Antonio, Texas, and George who died 1836 at the Goliad Massacre, Goliad, Texas??
I have started to research these, as clearly they dedicate a Courtman past, and I could make assumptions, but that is not the way to go, in any research.
But asking questions is fine.
With grateful thanks to:
Alan Courtman, Dudley Courtman, Betty Waddell, Daphne Williamson, Sheila Thrift, Chris Ray, Christine Courtman, Fiona Evans, Chris Ward, Jake Nelson, David Walker, Ray Sewell, Roger Suckling, Rose McKeown.
Jean Fraser 1946-2007, Ann (Hourigan) Fraser 1949-2012.
And many others with smaller contributions too numerous to list.
Links and Sources:
Source: Source: http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk
Source: ERO Quarter Sessions 1836, Ref Q / SBD 11/1 8. Extraction by Joan Ainsworth, Australia. Convict Arrivals NSW 1788-1842. FFHS.
Convict Ships to NSW 1801-1849. http://members.iinet.net.au/~perthdps/convicts/shipNSW2.html.
Source: Australian Convict Transportation Registers 1791-1868. National Archives. http://www.ancestry.co.uk.
ADM 101/33/9 Medical and surgical journal of Her Majesty's hired convict ship Henry Wellesley for 2 June 1837 to 3 January 1838 by H Leyson, Surgeon, during which time the said ship was employed in conveying convicts to New South Wales. (Described at item level).
Source: Robert Courtman, Calendar of Prisons, 1876, Swaffham.
References, Hearth Tax 1670.
1, Haldon, John F. (1997) Byzantium in the Seventh Century: the Transformation of a Culture. Cambridge University Press.
2, Fossier, p 113
3, Wagner, p 294
4, Fossier, p 115
5, Hughes, Elizabeth (ed) (1991). The Hampshire Hearth Tax Assessment 1665. Hampshire County Council. ISBN1-873595-08-5.
Any images of people either living or deceased, were found in the public domain at various locations, as shown in the Source section above. And the website of www.fraser-courtman.co.uk and its owners and developers, neither accept or hold © copyright to those images, or any text or statistics associated with them, and still belong to their respective original owners, of which I give thanks. Should anyone wish their name and or photo be taken down, then please email me at firstname.lastname@example.org and it will be done as soon as practicable. Privacy of living individuals is a prime concern of my research, and respect anyone’s wish to enforce that, and have done so only on just two occasions.
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This profile has been created from sections hacked from the original Courtman Profile, on www.fraser-courtman.co.uk along with all required images. The font colour, size and family have all been imported from that original file: Bitstream Charter,serif, as that is how i want it to look! but had to concede on size due to Wordpress limitations, and there are a few! I am also trying to find a way to alter the page or section headings, as it might be how the Guild wishes them to look, but i have other ideas! But i hope all that hasn’t spoilt your viewing of the Profile. James Fraser, at it since 1999.
Created by James Fraser 2017 for inclusion into the Courtman profile space http://courtman.one-name.net on the Guild of one-name studies site. www.one-name.org and also on the main website of www.fraser-courtman.co.uk.
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