Guild of One-Name Studies
One-name studies, Genealogy
Carpenter is a surname. Its use as a forename or middle name is rare. Within the United States in the 1990 US Census, it is ranked as the 189th-most common surname. (1)(2)(6)
The Carpenter One-Name Study is North American centric, but accepts members globally. This version of the Carpenter One-Name Study started in June 2018 with the Guild of One-Name Studies.
Please note that there was another Carpenter One Name Study in the 1990s to early 2000s by another person. After her demise, the surname was removed from the GUILD surname listing.
The Carpenter Cousins Project (see below) started in 1996 as the Carpenter CD Project. The CD Project was published as a two compac disc set in 2001 as the Carpenters' Encyclopedia of Carpenters 2001. The last version was published in 2009 as two data DVD set.
A series of printed genealogies, based on the above, on the major branches were also printed from 2001 to 2009. A number of articles (about 300) were started or contributed to on Wikipedia on notable Carpenters from 2001 to 2009.
In 2008, Eugene Zubrinsky, FASG, (Fellow of the American Society of Genealogists - one of fifty master genealogists in the USA) completed a two plus year study on the immediate families of the two William Carpenters immigrants that came to America in 1635 and 1638. These twelve Carpenter Sketches have been updated as needed as new research has been found and confirmed.
The Carpenter Cousins.com Coat of Arms (copyrighted 1997), seen on this page, was designed by Terry Lee Carpenter in his 1997 article on "Carpenters Coat of Arms." His hypothetical Carpenter Arms is used by his permission for the Carpenter Cousins Project and described as:
Shield: Paly of six, white and gules, on a chevron azure three mullets or.
Crest: The American bald eagle proper.
Motto: E Pluribus Unum (Out of Many, One).
Common use of the Carpenter surname in the English language is seen circa 1275-1325 in Middle English. Its use prior to this time as a surname has roots in the Anglo-Norman French introduced into England about the time of the Norman conquest of England of 1066. The earliest attested use as a surname in English is from 1121, though its use as a secondary name or description in the ''Domesday Book'' of 1086 might have precedence.(3)
In Old French, the surname was commonly written as "Carpentier" and its earlier form as "Charpentier". Its use as a surname may have derived as a nickname or description of one's occupation circa 900-1000.(2)
All of these variations come from the Late Latin ''carpentārĭus'', denoting use as an ''artifex''. This related to Artificer - a wagon or carriage-maker equal to a wainwright. The roots of ''carpentārĭus'' come from the Latin ''carpentum'', meaning a two-wheeled carriage or a form of chariot not used directly for warfare in the community by women and others, plus ''arius'' - used in the masculine form as a noun denoting an agent of use from other nouns. It may be related to the Old Irish ''carpat'' and the Gaulish language ''carbad'' for carriage or cart, and is probably related to the Gaulish ''karros''.(2)
Carpenter historical name variants
Historically Carpenter name variants include:
* Wright - Woodwright in old England Such as a "wood wright" (wood worker). See also "wainwright", from "wain wright" (a wooden wagon maker).
* Carpentier and Charpentier - From the French Norman Carpentier (le Carpentier, le Charpentier), a worker of wood, derived from the late Latin "carpentarius", a maker of wooden carriages. French Surnames > CARPENTIER ++, Forme norm.-picarde de Charpentier; var. du Sud-Ouest et roussillonnase Carpentier. Avecart. Le Carpentier.
* Carpender - An English phonetic name variant of Carpenter. Also seen as Carpendar.
* Zimmerman(n) - Within North America and especially in the USA, some Carpenters have Germanic Zimmerman(n) genetic ancestry but have been known as Carpenters for many generations. Those Carpenter/Zimmerman(n) hybrids are treated as Carpenters in this One-Name Study and in the Carpenter Cousins Y-DNA Project.
Carpenter, Zimmerman and related surnames found in the USA include, but are not limited to due to simple misspellings, or phonetic spelled variations.
Carpenter in other languages
* Mac an tSaoir - Irish for "son of the descendants of the workman", anglicized as MacIntyre or Macintyre, Carpenter (particularly in and around Dublin), and other related names, sometimes incorrectly as Freeman.(5)
* Ács - Carpenter in Hungarian.
* Agaççy - Carpenter in Turkey.
* Carpentiere - Carpenter in Italian, a worker of wood, from the Latin "carpentarius".
* Carpintero & Carpenteiro - Carpenter in Spanish. A worker in wood, from the Latin "carpentarius".
* Chippie - An United Kingdom and Australian slang for a carpenter. Can be used for either the occupation or surname.
* Dailidė - Carpenter in Lithuanian.
* De Carpenter or De Carpentier - Dutch for "the carpenter", a worker of wood, from the French Carpentier.
* Plotnikov - Carpenter in Russian.
* Puusepp - Carpenter in Estonian.
* Cieśla and Cymerman - Carpenter in Polish.
* Simmerman - alternate of Timmerman, both seen in Western Europe.
* Tâmplaru - Carpenter in Romanian.
* Tesař & Teslyar - Carpenter in Czech.
* Timmerman - Carpenter in Dutch, a worker of wood, from the German Zimmerman.
* Tischler and Schreiner, which are also surnames, are German names for woodworking names/professions related to the English language word Carpenter.
* Tømmermann - Carpenter in Norwegian.
* Zimmerman(n) - German for a worker in wood. The double n may or may not have religious implication.
Carpenter Cousins Project
The Carpenter Cousins Project is a global One Name Study. The primary surname in the project is Carpenter with the variants Carpender, Carpentier, and Charpentier.
To account for immigrants to North America, who may have anglicized their surnames, the project also includes the surnames Cymerman, Sherbondy, Simmerman, Timmerman, Timmermann, Zimmer, Zimmerman, Zimmermann. For example, Zimmerman(n) is old German for worker of wood, and in North American, on occasion, the surname was changed to Carpenter.
Those with the surname Carpenter, Zimmerman and related spelled surnames are treated as the same for the related Y-DNA surname Project (see next section).
One goal is the collection of documented genealogies and family histories.
Other goals support genealogical, immigrant and Y-DNA research (see next section) and general support for its members.
This project is open to all Carpenter Cousins globally and those with related surnames who are willing to submit their documented ancestry. You do not need to take a DNA test to participate at this level.
It also uses two email support forums for general discussions. See more on the web page.
Carpenter-1-Name Project - A general DNA Project
The Carpenter-1-Name Project is at FTDNA only.
This is a catch all Carpenter DNA Project (Carpenter-1-Name) for those testing with autosomal or atDNA (Family Finder), mitochondrial mtDNA and other DNA tests at FTDNA. This Carpenter-1-Name project is for ALL male and female Carpenter DNA testers at FTDNA.
Carpenter Y-DNA test takers can join this project in addition to the Carpenter Cousin Y-DNA (surname) Project cited next.
Carpenter Cousins Y-DNA Project - A Y-DNA Surname Project
A human Y-chromosome (Y-DNA) surname project exists for both Carpenter and its related variants, and the related variant names of Zimmerman(n) that became Carpenter. This includes the French Carpentier & Charpentier, with their name variants, that is designated as Carpenter Cousins.(4)
Y-DNA is passed from father to son virtually unchanged over the generations. Y-DNA has documented that Carpenter, Zimmerman, Charpentier and other related surnames do ''not'' have a single common ancestor or root. While genetic grouping does exist, some individuals matching no others genetically seem Western European in origin and others not matching are from random areas or listed as unknown. See the Project main web page for more details.(4)
Basic lineages, supported by genealogy, can be see on the Project Lineage page. The various groups are related genetically as outlines on the Tables cited on the main web page then shows the inter-relatedness of each member shown by an ID numbers. Those living, including deceased testers, are cited by ID number or just "living" to protect the privacy of our members. Those not connecting genealogically are detached except in the larger groups where they are placed in a sub-group. Blue text show mutations to the group mean.
As of June 2018, the Y-DNA Project is active with 35 organized groups, one semi-organized group of genetic near matches (but not matching anyone) based on Haplogroup R-M269, called Group 98. There is one random results group (not matching anyone else in the project) called Group 99. There appears to be about 440 Y-DNA tested members with the majority (415) from tested at Family Tree DNA and the others from different DNA testing companies. (4)
Adoptees, who have significant documentation via genetic and genealogical research, can have their biological lineage added to the appropriate group. (4)
Sub-grouping within the group is done in two ways.
1) By Genealogy paper trails or the lack thereof resulting in connections genealogically and genetically related then genetically related but not connected genealogically.
2) By Y-DNA markers representing genetic mutations or a genetic distance or variance from the group norm.
These mutations within the group can form genetic sub-grouping if confirmed by genealogical material. The possibility of a random mutation occurring in different lines must always be considered in DNA testing and is called a random match. Project administrators have paid special attention to these mutations for group and possible sub-grouping association.(4)
Two groups in particular (Groups 2 and 3) have 24 out of 25 markers in common. In many Y-DNA surname projects these two groups would have been listed as one group. However, each group has a distinct immigrant ancestor who came to the Americas in 1635 and 1638. Further testing to 111 Y-DNA markers, including specialized testing on individual Y-STR markers, have provided a clearer separation of based on DNA values.(4)
Summary of discriminants between Groups 2 and 3:
DYS464d (13 to 25 FTDNA Y-DNA marker set)
Group 2 = 16
Group 3 = 17
DYS413a (38 to 67 set)
Group 2 = 21
Group 3 = 22
DYS635 (68 to 111 set)
Group 2 = 23
Group 3 = 24
Groups 2 and 3 combined represent the largest group of tested members of the Carpenter Cousins Y-DNA Project. A section entitled "Carpenter Sketches" documents the immediate extended families of these two Carpenter immigrant families.(4)
Haplogrouping is consistent within the organized groups, but is not focused on by this genetic-genealogy surname project. Haplogroups and their haplotypes help reveal deep ancestry based on mathematical probability and tries to relate to old world prehistoric cultures, groups or climes.
The most common western European Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA), also known as the Haplogroup R1b is cited as the Western Atlantic Modal Haplogroup (WAMH), shows up in the majority of the groups. This is not unexpected with the majority of tested members claiming Western Europe as a possible location for their ancestors. Those who have this more common haplogroup should test 37 or more Y-STR markers, while others can start at a 25 markers Y-DNA test. When in doubt start at 37 markers.(4)
All groups have made an effort to provide a basic paternal lineage that is listed on a separate page and can be accessed via ID numbers on Table 1 or via the Lineage page. Many groups have ancestry going back 400 or more years. But, only one paternal lineage claims descent more than 600 years. This is consistent with common genealogy trends and results. While Y-DNA testing will never replace proper genealogical efforts, it is valuable in confirming genetic relationships and non-relationships.(4)
Via FTDNA: To request joining this Y-DNA Surname Project with testing via Family Tree DNA (FTDNA), please click here. The FTDNA Carpenter Cousins Y-DNA Project - X page is at: https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/carpenter-cousins-dna/about/background
Via Other DNA Companies: Those who test via other Y-DNA testing companies are also welcome by contacting the project administrator, John R. Carpenter who will advise what is needed. (4)
It should be clear that this Y-DNA Project is a surname project. It is not a geographic or area project. It is not a Hapologroup or deep ancestry project. It does not track mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA), atDNA (autosomal DNA) like the Ancestry DNA Test or the Family Finder test from FTDNA. We focus on the male Y-Chromosome that is excellent for surname studies.
Those interested in discussing genealogy, family history and finding others to talk about all types of DNA testing can join one of the two email discussion forums cited (near the bottom of the page) on the Carpenter Cousins Project main web page.
(1) U.S. Census Bureau; Frequently Occurring First Names and Surnames From the 1990 Census, (Table) Name: Carpenter; published May 9, 1995.
Frequency in percent: 0.053
Cumulative Frequency in percent: 24.621
(2) The English meaning of ''carpenter'' is from the occupation of one who makes wooden objects and structures by shaping wood. Combined from several sources including: ''Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary'', 1996 by Barnes & Noble Books, and ''Concise Oxford Dictionary - 10th Edition'' by Oxford University Press.
(3) Online Etymology Dictionary by Douglas Harper, 2001-2010, accessed April 13, 2010.
(4) Carpenter Cousins Y-DNA Project, accessed June 2018.
(5) Thomas O'Connor: Carpenter, John (1729-86). In: ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, 2004,, PDF version, accessed 7 Jan 2012.
See: also: Rev. Patrick Woulfe: ''Irish Names and Surnames, Collected and Edited with Explanatory and Historical Notes'', originally published in Dublin, 1923, reprinted by Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, Md., 1967; p. 318.
See also: John O'Hart: ''Irish Pedigrees; or the Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation'', 1892, reprinted by the Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, Md., 1989, p. 307fn.
NOTE: Carpenter is not an Irish name in origin, but may have been adopted as a result of a 1465 law enacting that "every Irishman that dwells betwixt or amongst Englishmen in the County of Dublin, Myeth, Vriell, and Kildare ... shall take to him an English Surname of ... arte or science, as ... carpenter." This per Sir Robert E. Matheson: ''Special Report on Surnames in Ireland with Notes as to Numerical Strength, Derivation, Ethnology, and Distribution; Based on Information Extracted from the Indexes of the General Register Office'', Alex. Thom & Co. (Ltd.), Dublin, 1909, p. 15.
NOTE2: The Carpenter surname was recorded in Ireland as early as 1636. See: Sir Arthur Vicars: ''Index to the Prerogative Wills of Ireland, 1536-1810'', 1897, reprinted by the Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, Md., 1989, p. 77. See also: Sir Robert E. Matheson, LL.D.: ''Varieties and Synonymes of Surnames and Christian Names in Ireland'', 1909, reprinted as ''Special Report on Surnames in Ireland, with Notes as to Numerical Strength, Derivation, Ethnology, and Distribution'' by the Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, Md., 1982, p. 41.
NOTE3: In County Kerry, the surname is said to be that of an English family who settled on estates near Tralee as a result of the Irish Rebellion of 1641. See: Michael C. O'Laughlin: ''Families of County Kerry, Ireland'', Irish Genealogical Foundation, Kansas City, Mo., 1994, p. 19. After the Restoration in 1660, John Carpenter, Philip Carpenter, Capt. Phillip Carpenter, and Lt. Thomas Carpenter were among the "Forty-Nine (i.e, 1649) Officers" who supported the Royalist cause in the Irish Confederate Wars rewarded with grants of land in Ireland. See: John O'Hart: ''The Irish and Anglo-Irish Landed Gentry When Cromwell Came to Ireland; A Supplement to Irish Pedigrees'', M.H. Gill & Son, Dublin, 1884, p. 377.
NOTE4: The 1659 census of County Limerick listed Carpenter as a family surname in Balliea townland, Small County Barony, and among the tituladoes (principal residents) in the barony of Cosmay in Limerick.See: Michael C. O'Laughlin: ''Families of Co. Limerick Ireland from the Earliest Times to the 20th Century...Including English, Scots, & Anglo Norman Settlers and Settlements'', Irish Genealogical Foundation, Kansas City, Mo., 1997, p. 41.
NOTE5: Many of the MacIntyres of Northern Ireland are believed to be descended from the Scottish Clan MacIntyre whose ancient seat was in Lorne, Scotland. A documented instance of the surname Carpenter being adopted by an Irish McIntyre in America is that of Ireland-born brothers Owen Patrick McIntyre of Placer County, California and Michael Carpenter of Ottawa County, Michigan as shown in McIntyre's last will & testament dated August 25, 1875 and filed September 11, 1875 naming his brother Michael to direct the education of his nephew and namesake Michael's son Owen Patrick Carpenter. See: California State Society, DAR: ''Wills and Abstracts of Wills from California Counties, Volume I'', California DAR Genealogical Records Committee Report, Series 1, Volume 91, 1957, p. 66.
(6) Wikipedia: Carpenter (surname)
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