Form Note: It is impossible and impractible to distinguish topographical suffixes, so all have been grouped together below. This is a selection. Prepositions Norman French De: Dansey < D’Anisy Affixes Prefixes Cornish Beware these prefixes can also be found in non-Cornish names. Bos- (dwelling): Bosanko (but not Bostock = a Cheshire placename) Car-, Ker- (fort, camp): Carthew (but not Carmichael = a Lanarkshire placename, or Kersey) Lan- (enclosure): Lanyou (but not Lansdownl = a Somerset placename) Nan- (valley): Nancarrow (but not Nangle = a topograph) Pen- (head or end): Penhadow (but not Pennington = from various placenames) Pol- (pool): Polkinghorne (but not Polly= a nickname) Ros- (heath, promontory): Roscarrock Tre- (homestead): Trenery (but not Tremlett = a Norman placename) Gaelic (Scotland) Auchen-, Auchin Bal- Inver- Kil- Strath- Pictish Aber- Burn- Suffixes Old English -back, beach -bar [check] -borough, burgh, bury -bourn, bourne ,burn -bridge -chester, cester, caster -combe, coombe -cot: but confusion with –cock, cox -cross -don, down -field: but field can be an anglicisation of -ville e.g. Grenfell/Grenville is a Norman toponym -ford -gate -grove -hall, -hale -ham -hanger -haugh -head -house: -in Yorkshire West Riding weakened to produce variants ending –us, -uss, -as, -ars, -is, -iss, -ess, -ers, -oss, -ous (Redmonds) -ing, ings -ington, ingham: occasionally became –lin, -ling -land -ley, leigh -minster -ness -royd: Ackroyd -son: placename+son is rare e.g. Kendalson, Cravenson -stock -ston, -stone -stowe -ton -town -tree, -try -wall -well -wich -wick -worth, -worthy Old Scandinavian -by: Derby -bie: Except Crombie, from the Gaelic ‘bent stream’ with other surname variants, Cromey, Crommie, Crumey, and Crummy. -beck: Birkbeck -brack: Brack -breck -brick: Swarbreck, Scarisbrick, Swarbrick -dale: Often became –dall, -dill, -dell, -dle, -dal –deall in Yorkshire WR -fell: Fell -field: Final ‘d’ loss resulted in forms – fill, -fall, -fell, -full e.g. Wigfield, Wigfall -garth: Haygarth -gill: Pickersgill. In YWR, sometimes became –gale (Redmonds) -keld: Salkeld -mel: Mell -rigg: Rigg -thorpe: -toft: -thwaite: Braithwaite Placename + er Mainly south Midlands (England): Rusbridger, Cresweller Placename + man Mainly north of England: Kendalman (though could be occupational), Fentiman, Penkethman (though Reaney argues for servant of the family of Penketh).