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About the study
The NEUGARTEN One-Name study started in about 1998. It began, like many other one name studies when I started researching my own ancestry, and particularly that of my Great Grandmother, Jeanette NEUGARTEN. Since then, I have collected a substantial body of worldwide data about people whose surname is NEUGARTEN and who descend from ancestors with that last name.
The name was registered with the Guild of One Name studies in January 2009 and the NEUGARTEN One-Name study has since been included in the Guild registration as category B, E, R3. This classification means I have told the Guild that NEUGARTEN is a surname for which I have:
- Agreed to research and collect all references to the registered surname and have accumulated a substantial body of worldwide data over a period of time;
- Acquired a one-name email alias address in the name of the study; and have
- Reconstructed quite a lot/a majority of family trees for the name.
As yet, no variants of the name have been registered with the Guild of One Name Studies, although several branches of the family have adapted the name. Variants seen so far include NAGAN (in Israel and The Netherlands) and NEWGUARD (in the USA).
Menk (2005: p. 560) suggests that NEUGARTHEN should be recognised as a variant of the name, although as yet there is no further evidence to support this.
The major variation within the NEUGARTEN One-Name study is in pronunciation. Whilst most of the family write and spell the name in the same way, many different pronunciations exist, from the German, (original) through NEWGARTEN (USA).
The SOUNDEX code for NEUGARTEN is N263
The Daitch-Mokotoff Soundex code for NEUGARTEN is 659360.
Further information about Daitch-Mokotoff Soundex may be found on the JewishGen website.
European States began introducing laws forcing their Jewish populations to adopt fixed and hereditary surnames during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Until this time, Jewish men were known only by their given names, with their father's name being added to help to differentiate between those of the same name.
Menk (2005: p. 560) notes that the surname NEUGARTEN was an artificial surname, which he describes (p. xxii) as a surname without any obvious relationship to those based on:
- given names,
- masculine given names, mainly the father's first name (patronymics) and
- feminine, given names, mainly the mother's first name (matronymics).
- geographic origins (toponymics)
- personal characteristics
He describes it as being the German translation of "new garden" and notes also that it may have originated in Neugartheim, Bas-Rhin, France, although as yet, no evidence has been located to corroborate this.
Menk describes the post 1800 origins of the surname NEUGARTEN as being in the following locations in Germany:Alme (Oberalme) Hochsauerland-Kreis (Meschede), North Rhine - Westphalia (1829);
Dorstfeld, Dortmund (18..);
Huckarde, Dortmund (1812 from "Muschstadt", see footnote #443);
Mengede, Dortmund (1825);
Ostönnen, Soest (1846);
Rhein-Dahlen, Mönchengladbach, North Rhine - Westphalia (18..);
Soest, Soest (1826)
At footnote #443 he notes: Michelstadt, Odenwald-Kreis (Erbach), Hessen or Mixstadt, Schildberg, Posen or Mutterstadt, Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Rhineland-Palatinate, or Nieder or Ober-Mockstadt, Fürstenfeldbruck, Bavaria.
This means he knows that the family originated in Muschstadt - although he is uncertain where this might be located and offers a number of possibilities.
Brilling (1960, p.165) has further and more detailed information about Muschstadt. He observes that the name adoption list from Staatsarchiv Münster dated 3 April 1846 describes Levi Samuel NEUGARTEN of Huckarde aged 75 as being born in Muschstadt b. Frankfurt, b. being the German abbreviation for bei, as in near. Brilling notes "Der Name ist ein neu angenommener Familienname". Brilling tells his readers that the surname NEUGARTEN was adopted by Levi Samuel and his family as well as by his deceased brother's family who lived in Mengede.
As noted extensively by Hesse, (1991), an apparently unrelated family called NEUGARTEN lived in the Brilon area of Kreis Arnsberg, North Rhine - Westphalia. This family accounts for the last 3 entries in Menk's post 1800 origins list.
BRILLING, Bernhard. (1960). Geschichte der Juden in Dorstfeld und Huckarde 1731-1942, pp.129-168 in Beiträge zur Geschichte Dortmunds und der Grafschaft Mark, Band LVII.
HESSE, Ursula. (1991). Juedisches Leben in Alme Altenbren Brilon Madfeld Messinghausen Rösenbeck Thülen von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart, Stadt Brilon.
MENK, Lars. (2005). A dictionary of German-Jewish surnames. Bergenfield, NJ, Avotaynu.
History of the name
Evidence suggests the surname originated in Germany in the early 1700s, and much of the available information about the earliest generations is written in German.
The earliest known NEUGARTEN, Samuel, lived in the Dortmund area of Germany during the 18th Century. This One-Name study documents the NEUGARTEN family's origins in the Dortmund area of Germany and their subsequent worldwide dispersal.
Almost all occurrences of the NEUGARTEN surname exist outside the UK.
- There are no NEUGARTENs in the UK Censuses between 1841-1911
- There are only 7 mentions of NEUGARTEN in the GRO birth indices (and 3 of these were to women who were born with the name NEUGARTEN)
- Most holders of the surname are of German-Jewish extraction. Many generations of NEUGARTENs were either Holocaust victims, or were otherwise affected by the Holocaust, and current generations are now dispersed around the world, and are not in Germany.
- Menk (2005: p. 560) found only 5 entries in the 1998 German telephone directory from of a total of about 33,000,000 entries.
Distribution of the name
Many, but by no means all of the NEUGARTENs are to be found in the USA, but others are in South Africa, South America, Israel, and The Netherlands.
As at March 2009 there are 8 generations of descendants from the original Samuel NEUGARTEN and his descendants can be found in 21 countries round the world and 15 US States.
Given the non-UK focus of this study, there is relatively limited amount of information available in traditional one-name UK genealogical sources. However, as at January 2009 the Ancestry.com website had no less than 580 different references to people with the surname NEUGARTEN.
It is hoped that in due course this One-Name study will include comprehensive NEUGARTEN data from the following sources, amongst others:
JewishGen Opfer der Verfolgung der Juden unter der nationalsozialistischen Gewaltherrschaft in Deutschland 1933-1945
Central Database of Shoah Victims' Names