Guild of One-Name Studies
One-name studies, Genealogy
Variants: Enskip, Inscip, Inskeep, Inskipp, Inskippe
Category: 1 - A study where research using core genealogical datasets and transcriptions is in its early stages.
Contact: Mrs Jennifer Kirkby
Inskip is a place surname which derives from the village of Inskip, in the hundred of Amounderness, in the county of Lancashire, England. The 1086 Domesday Book entry for the village is Inscip in the county of Yorkshire.
Hereditary surnames were not adopted by everyone until the 14th century. Before that many people only had a single name; surnames were an extra way of describing the person, often for legal identity. So, you would get John son of Henry of Bolton, or William the Blacksmith. Hereditary surnames were adopted in the twelfth century for higher ranks or free men for land transactions. However, by 1399 personal taxation had been introduced and almost everyone had a hereditary surname. It appears Inskip was a hereditary name by at least the middle of the 1200's, possibly before.
There are five main groups of English surnames
The surname Inskip (in all forms) is classed as a ‘quite rare’ English surname.
Meaning - The name Inskip is said to have Ancient British roots
British –‘inis’ ‘cip’ = island or meadow of the long grass
Welsh – ‘’ynys’ = island; Norse - ‘cype’ = osier or willow basket making;
There is also a definition in the 1891 History of St Michael's, by the Chetham Society that gives the meaning as: enge = a narrow place, skip = ship
Overall, the meaning seems to indicate an island in marshy land where there are willow trees. Wet, marshy areas were considered to be spiritual landscapes by the people of the mid Bronze Age to Iron Age ( BC 2000 - AD 43). Willow was a valuable resource for making a variety of goods including boats to get around .
Early History of Inskip the Place
Inskip is situated in the heart of lowland Fylde on the old Preston to Blackpool Road, on a small plateau 50ft above sea level. To the east is the ancient Carr House Green Common with its wide open space teaming with wildlife and affording long views across to the Fells of the Forest of Bowland. The Fylde area is flat, with 'big skies', wet and warm (for England!). The natural landscape is peat mossland and carr woodland that needs drainage management for cultivation. The social landscape is small, remote, dispersed rural settlements, set on low sand and gravel ridges on the edge of the mosslands.
The edges of the mosslands show substantial occupation in both the Neolithic and Bronze Age; watery places were seen as a transition between worlds and thus sacred landscapes - hence the many bog burials and sacrificial goods found in Britain and Northern Europe. In the Iron Age, before the Romans made their way to the Fylde around AD 71 (the conquest of Britain began in AD 43), the area belonged to the Setantii tribe, a sept of the powerful Brigantes tribe of Northern England whose notorious Queen Cartimanua made a treaty with Rome around AD 51. After the Romans left Britain around AD 410, the Fylde became part of the Brigantes Kingdom of Rheged. The local culture continued unchanged from the Iron Age with little Roman influence apart from the introduction of Christianity in the 4th century; the people spoke a British Celtic language closely related to Old Welsh.
In the 7th century Rheged was swallowed up by the Anglo Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria, however the large number of surviving British placenames suggest the 'Celtic' language was spoken well into the 8th cenutry. Following the 9th century Viking invasion of Britain, the Fylde became part of wapentake of Amounderness in viking Jorvik and was a destination for the the Norwegians thrown out of Dublin. Thus, at the creation of a united England in the 10th century under King Athelstan the area was a sparsely populated mix of British Celt, Angle, Irish and both Norwegian and Danish Viking. Sandwiched uncomfortably between the Scottish, Irish and Anglo Saxon realms, it was a frontier region both culturally and politically; this gave the area a powerful and enduring sense of separateness and identity.
In 1016 King Malcolm II of Scotland is said to have devastated the Flyde area. When this is combined with the Norman genocide of the North of Engand in 1069, it is not surprising that the area was still mainly wasteland at the time of the 1086 Domesday survey; with only 16 villages and few inhabitants. The Doomsday book entry for Inskip reads - 'Inscip has 2 carucates of land [under cultivation] and Sorbi (Sowerby) one [carucate = 100 acres] it belonged to Preston'. In 1066 Inskip had belonged to Earl Tostig Godwinson the brother of King Harold,who died fighting Harold at the battle of Stamford Bridge; in 1086 the manor was held by King William. Later it was given to Roger de Poitou as part of a large land holding in the new county of Lancashire which buffered England and Scotland.
In 1160-1170 The Master Serjeant of the area appears to have been Anglo Saxon, Ughtred, son of Huck - an indication maybe of the still inhospitable landscape. By the 13th century the manor is held by the de Carlton family, and then passed via marriage to the Botiller or Butler family of Rawcliffe.– “The manor of Inskip was given by her father to Alicia daughter of William de Carleton in 1281 on her marriage to Richard Botiller”. By 1285 the manor is held by Henry de Keighley. The de Keighley's were prominent in King Henry V's wars with France and supplied Lancashire Bowmen at Agincourt. A record of the manor in the mid 15th century shows the economy to be based on animal husbandry, and peat, the majority of it being meadow and pasture, moss and marsh. The de Keighley's held the manor of Inskip until 1567 when the male line dies out. Both they and the Inskip family disappear from the area at the same time, but this may be a complete coincidence.
The name Inskip would have been first used after 1066 by people who lived in the Inskip area - this is supported by the earliest records. However, by the 17th century no Inskips are recorded around the area at all. The name appears instead in places further east on the Lancashire/Yorkshire border and also in Bedfordshire, Northumberland, Staffordshire, Sussex and even Devon - before finding its way to America, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa, and Argentina . It is the story of how, why and when the surname got to and thrived in these places that is of key interest in the One-Name Study.
Y-Chromosome, DNA Studies
The people around Inskip are said to be from a mix of British Celtic, Angle and Scandinavian descent - supported by the early history of the area.
DNA studies have become increasingly popular over the last 20 years. Family DNA testing is done on part of the Y chromosome that is passed unchanged from father to son; it can therefore show origin and links between people with the same surname. In the early 00's Mike Inskip from Staffordshire undertook an early DNA Y chromosome test for ethnic origin of the male Inskip line. This showed his line to be British Celtic - the oldest ethnic group in the British Isles.
In 2010 the One-Name Study organized a DNA Y-chromosome study run by University of Leicester. This included people with the name Inskip, Inskipp and Inskeep from both the UK and the US.
The study concluded that all forms came from the same single hereditary surname founder; probably from around the 12th-13th century. The earliest paper record currently is for Alan de Inskip who lived in the mid 12th century, around the village of Inskip. Alan’s descendents do seem to have continued using the name 'de Inskip' legally for property holding. Alan may or may not have been our Inskip founder.
That means that all those born with the Inskip, Inskeep and Inskipp surname are ‘kin’, with a co-ancestry – apart from those who were adopted or had what is called a 'non-paternity' event, that is to say a father in the line was not a biological 'Inskip'.
This study also concluded that the Y-chromosome genetic inheritance of the Inskip surname appeared to be British Celtic. The genetic group (haplogroup) the Inskips belong to is broadly R1b and more specifically R-S116.
People associated with the village of Inskip in 1086 at the time of the Domesday book have mainly Scandinavian names with some Angle and Norman; they were:-
Alflaed; Alfred; Alwine; Arnketil; Biarni; Claman; Dolgfinnr; Earl Edwin; Earl Tosti; Egbrand; Everard, man of William de Percy; Flotmann; Gamal; Gamal Barn; Gluniairnn; Gospatric; Gunnar; Hrafnsvartr; Ketil; Leysingr; Orm; Ramkel; Rawn; Roger de Poitou; Suneman; Thor; Thorbiorn; Thorbrandr; Thorfinnr; Thorgrim; Thorkil; Toli; Ulf; Ulfkil; William; William de Percy; Wulfric
The earliest Inskips found to date are as follows and seem highly likely to be one family:-
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''BLACK DEATH 1349 ''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
There is a list of Inskips killed in action in the First and Second World Wars at the Commonwealth War Graves Commission site. The Honorary Artistic Adviser to the Commonwealth War Graves is architect and Lutyens expert, Peter Inskip
Inskips Transported to Australia
~Date arrived, Name, Place of origin, Ship, Notes ~
1819, Ralph, Staffordshire, Atlas, Labourer born around 1786,freed 1826, died 1838 NSW
1826, Thomas, Staffordshire, Unknown, Convicted March 1826 for 10 years, Freed in 1842
1829, Robert, Probably London, Unknown, Committed for life at Old Bailey for stealing a handkerchief
1830, Louisa, Prob London, America, 7 years at the Old Bailey for stealing a watch & money, absconded & recaptured 1832, freed 1837
1831, William, Sussex, Camden, Convicted at Hastings Oct 1830 for 7 years, freed in 1838
1834, Richard, Staffordshire, Moffatt, Convicted Feb 1833 for 7 years, freed 1838
1837, Henry, London, Charles Kerr, Convicted central criminal court,7 years for stealing property freed 1844
1837, William, Surrey, Neptune, Convicted April 1837 at Guilford for 7 years
1841, John, Staffordshire, Lady Raffles. Convicted Dec 1839 for 10 years
1848, Samuel, Bedfordshire, Hashery, Convicted Reading Feb 1847, pardoned and disembarked. Then in 1857 Age 45 he was charged with warehouse breaking & stealing 33lb flour.15 years. Arrived on the Nile.
Inskips who fought in the American Civil War 1861-1865 - The Brothers War
Private Jeffers B Inskip, 6th Virginia Cavalry
Private I T Inskipp, 12th Missouri Cavalry
Private Henry T Inskeep, 6th Missouri Infantry
V Inskipp, Texas
Chaplin Joseph S Inskip, 84th New York Infantry
Private Phineas Inskip, 62nd Ohio Infrantry
Private John C Inskip, 48th Ohio Infantry
First Lieutenant James R Inskeep, 24th Ohio Infantry
Private J D Inskip, Signal Corps, US Volunteers
Private E W Inskeep, 17th Ohio Infantry
If anyone would like to include any other noteable Inskip, or can add any information to those already here, please let me know on the email below.
I would be pleased to hear from anyone who could give me surname statistics for other countries, particularly Australia, New Zealand and the USA.
Migration Patterns and Historic Context. -
1200’s and 1300’s – The English Nation Emerges
• The name is known in Lancashire in places around Inskip in Sowerby. Post the time of the Black Death the name moves further afield to other areas of Lancashire eg Claughton.
Late 1400’s century early 1500’s - Wars with France and Between the Roses
• The name appears in more places in Lancashire eg Kirkham, Garstang; and there is a move east from Claughton to places near Clitheroe on the Yorks/Lancs border
• Occurrences in Sussex around Chichester. This may have been to do with the wars with France (Lancashire bowmen were used by Henry V). Men from Inskip and the surrounding areas are known to have fought at Harfleur and Agincourt. The Sussex coast was a launchpad for France. It could also have been to do with trade, politics or religion. Such a long way from home!
• A coalmine is rented in Pipewellgate, Gateshead, Durham
• The Rev William Inskip is rector of Clowne, Derbyshire – a guess would be that he is from the Lancs/Yorks group; he does not seem to have had children there.
Middle – late 1500’s - Religious Upheaval
• Now we get the first records in Bedfordshire - Old Warden and Southill. There is an unconfirmed story that 3 brothers came down from the North and settled. With land up for grabs after the Reformation and a Cistercian abbey at Old Warden there may be a lot of truth in the story. The Inskips were mainly yeomen farmers/husbandmen, and as the 17th century dawned were busy buying/leasing land, as well as marrying for it, particularly the younger sons. The land around this part of Bedfordshire is very fertile having a base of green sand that is excellent for market gardening. It is quite different from the largest part of the county which is based on Bedfordshire clay and the source of London Brick Company. With the growing population of London, farmers from this area were well placed to take advantage of their location. Indeed the wealthiest and most prosperous parishes of the county included Sandy, which the Inskips gravitate towards.
• The Sussex enclave thrives particularly around Lewes, Hastings and Battle
• A few marriages turn up in Northumberland mostly around Berwick on Tweed.
1600’s - Civil war and the Emergence of Art and Science
• Bedfordshire and Sussex outcrops go from strength to strength
• Staffordshire starts to establish itself mid century (1640 ish) around Stone and Dilhorne. The earliest sighting is 1618 in Stone. It is still not known if they came from Lancashire or Bedfordshire; but most likely Lancashire
• The Forest of Bowland (Yorks/Lancs border)families continue History from 1669 on Craig Thornber's website
• A small occurrence in Plymouth in 1611 (emigration to America?). First American record found is in 1625 in New Jersey and 1654 New Hampshire.
• The first families appear in London around Fenchurch and London Wall 1615
• There is a fluttering around Berwick in Northumberland until mid century
1700’s – Enlightenment and Enclosure
• Bedfordshire, Sussex and Staffordshire establish themselves as the main centres. Spreading around local areas
• In Bedfordshire they move east to areas like Biggleswade, Shefford, Hitchen Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire: and west - mid century John Inskip goes to Maulden to farm the newly acquired lands of the Duke of Bedford. The Southill part of the family move or die out in that village and Northill becomes stronger.
• Some Staffordshire Inskeeps (John Inskeep) move to America, Delaware, Ohio, Iowa. They took the Inskeep spelling with them, setting a difference between them and the earlier Inskip emigrants. There are also moves from Yorkshire to Pennsylvania.
• London and Yorkshire continue with a further eastern move towards Leeds
• Mid century a Leicester section is established around Ashby de la Zouch. May have been to do with land reform and the move of freeholders to larger estates in the agricultural revolution. Again they could be from Staffordshire or Bedfordshire.
1800’s – Social Unrest and Industrial Revolution
• Enclosure, wage restrictions and the emergence of industry played its part on Inskip migration, as with all other families. However there seems to be less moves to the emerging ‘sweatshop’ cities eg Manchester, Birmingham and Leeds by Inskips. The 1881 census shows the following of note.
• Some go to Derbyshire to mine from Bedfordshire. Sussex people go to Liverpool and Manchester
• Leicester becomes the centre for Leicestershire with many people in the brick trade.
• A group appeared early century in Plymouth and joined the Royal Navy. Resulting in the Inskip name being given to several geographical locations around the world.
• The Staffordshire group moved across the border to Shropshire, around Birmingham and Cheshire
• A second wave to Durham to work in the boatyards - from Sussex & Leicestershire
• A Bedfordshire family from Arseley to Bristol to establish the political branch
• Poverty forced William Inskip from Maulden, Bedfordshire to emigrate as a farmer on assisted passage to New South Wales, Australia so starting a large Australian outcrop. Other Inskip’s were transported there for their misdemeanours.
• Later in the century the Sussex and Bedfordshire families move to London to take up various professions from cooks and cab drivers to leather merchants and policemen.
• Bedfordshire and Staffordshire still thrive, Sussex and Yorks/Lancs less so.
1900’s – War, Politics and Education = Social Mobility
Trades From The 1871 English Census - a snapshot from a chaging world
By the 1870s Great Britain was starting to adapt to the rapid industrilisation of the early part of the century. There was a slow increase in political democracy from the 1830s and after the 1840s a gradual improvement in economic and social conditions through a series of reforms. The trades of the Inskip families mainly follow the developing economies in their geographical location, but opportunites through education and emigration were growing. The British Empire was expanding for those who wanted to seek a better or more adventurous life.
Bedfordshire – Farming, market gardening; straw plaiting for the village women and lace making for the ladies around Bedford
Staffordshire – Some agricultural workers but many have moved into the industrial mines and pottery trades. A lot of builders and straw dealers. Plus a group of stone masons from Bilston who made grindstones for the edge tool industry
Shropshire– Dealers of many kinds and a couple of Higglers
Sussex – Shopkeepers, white collar tradesmen eg surveyors and auctioneers, and clerks
Leicestershire– Blue collar tradesmen eg brickworkers and wood turners, shoe workers
Lancashire/Yorks – The original farmers mix with new factory workers in the towns
London – Artisans eg bookbinders, shoemakers, portrait painters, milliners. Merchants eg ironmonger and leather. Service workers eg cab men, house repairers, policemen
The other feature of this census is the slight move by the younger people to professions eg architects apprentice, bankers clerks, and law writers. The railway’s are also starting to make their mark with jobs and move people away from home ground. Amongst the children a few are being educated at boarding school.
Women’s occupations - landladies, washerwomen, dressmakers, semi-skilled factory workers, servants, lacemakers or straw plaiters. A few run their own shops.
The Inskip Blog - for Inskip family history stories, and general updates on the DNA project.
Inskip Facebook Page
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